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Uhlala eSpain? Ukusela IWayini Kancinci!

umfanekiso ngoncedo E.Garely

Ukuba uhlala eSpeyin, usenokuba uqaphele ukuba indlela osela ngayo itshintshile. Wena nabahlobo bakho nisela iwayini encinci yaseSpain!

Ngubani na oyekelelayo? Abo kuthi abahlala kwezinye iindawo zendalo basela kakhulu iiwayini ezivela eSpain ngokuba baye babangcono.

Ukubambelela ngokuqinileyo kwiSiko

Ilizwe lithintele ukubeka izidiliya ezikhethekileyo ngokwe-terroir. Ibhodi elawulayo ye-Spanish Denominations of Origin (DOs) iyathandabuza nayiphi na inzame yokuguqula imeko exhamla amafemu amakhulu abucala kwaye iqhubekisela phambili amandla abo.

Amanye amacandelo oshishino lwewayini yaseSpain akhetha ukutyala imali kwintengiso kunolawulo lomgangatho okanye ukukhuthazwa. Ngenxa yoko, ii-DOs ezaziwayo ezifana ne-Rias Baixas e-Galicia, zichebile umgca wohlahlo lwabiwo-mali olunikezelwe ekulawuleni umgangatho, zinciphisa ukusuka kwi-25 ekhulwini kwi-2014 ukuya kwiipesenti ze-20 kwi-2017 ngelixa utyalo-mali kwintengiso lwenyuka ukusuka kwi-35 ipesenti ukuya kwi-70 ekhulwini elifanayo. iminyaka. Oku kukwabonakala kugxininiso oluqhubekayo luninzi lweeDO - ukukhuthaza isivuno esikhulu sediliya kunye newayini ezikumgangatho ophantsi.

Ipesenti enkulu yokuthengiswa kwe wayini yase Spain kumazwe amaxabiso aphantsi aquka i France, Germany, Portugal kunye ne Italy apho amaxabiso aphantsi anxulumene nokuthengiswa kwe wayini ngobuninzi. Nangona elona xabiso lisezantsi lihlawulwe leli qela lihleli lizinzile kwiminyaka yakutshanje, inyaniso yeyokuba baphulukana nesabelo sabo sokuthumela ngaphandle ngokwexabiso. Amazwe ahlawula ixabiso elingumyinge ophezulu (kuquka i-US, iSwitzerland neKhanada) awanyusanga nje amaxabiso awo kodwa nesabelo sawo semarike.

Yintoni ENTSHA

Ukuphendula ekunciphiseni kokusetyenziswa kwendawo, iiwayini zaseSpain zamkela imigaqo-nkqubo yokuthengisa entsha esekwe kwidatha yophando lwemarike entsha. Ngokwembali, umthengi wewayini yemveli wayekhetha iwayini ezilula, ezingabizi mali ininzi, ezivundisiweyo nezityiwa yonke imihla. Abathengi banamhlanje baseSpain nabaseMazantsi aseYurophu basela iwayini encinci kunabazali babo kwaye ingaphantsi kakhulu kunootatomkhulu babo. Uphando lucebisa ukuba iprofayili yangoku yomthengi ophakathi kwingingqi yeMeditera yaseYurophu ungaphantsi kweminyaka engama-50 ubudala, ufundile eyunivesithi, kwaye ukwisibiyeli esinengeniso ephezulu. Kweli qela, ukuthenga iwayini yinkqubo ecwangcisiweyo kwaye ukusetyenziswa "sisithethe se-gastronomic" esenziwa "ngamaxesha athile."

IWTM yaseLondon ngo-2022 iya kuqhubeka ukususela nge-7-9 kaNovemba 2022. Bhalisa ngoku!

Esinye isizathu sokuba abantu abahlala eSpain basele kancinci kunokubalelwa kwiziselo ezithatha indawo yewayini kuMazantsi eYurophu, kubandakanya ibhiya, iziselo ezithambileyo nezihlwahlwazayo, iiFABs (iziselo ezinxilisayo ezinencasa), ijusi yeziqhamo kunye nolunye ulwelo. Xa iwayini isiselo esithandwayo, igqalwa “njengewayini ecikizekileyo” kwaye ixabisa ngokufanelekileyo.

Uphononongo lwentengiso olwenziwe yiSpanish Wine Association lufumanise ukuba ngaphantsi kwe 8 pesenti yabaphenduli abangaphantsi kweminyaka engama 24 basela iwayini. Ulutsha lwaseSpeyin lubona esi siselo njengesidala kwaye asithandeki. Bacinga ukuba kufuneka ube yingcaphephe ukuze wonwabele iwayini ke ngoko unciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwewayini “kwiingcali”.

Abanye oonobangela botshintsho baquka ukunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu kumazantsi eSpeyin ngokuthanda ukuselwa kweziselo ezibandayo ezifana nebhiya neziselo ezibandayo kunye nenyaniso yokuba ezi ziphungo zixhaswa ngamaphulo eentengiso anamandla. Icandelo lewayini alizithengi ngokusebenzayo iimveliso zalo kwaye kukho izithintelo ezisemthethweni zokusela utywala ngokusekelwe kwiminyaka yobudala.

Inkcubeko yeWayini iyanyamalala

Iwayini yayiyinxalenye yendlela yokuphila yaseMeditera kwaye oku kutya kuthatyathelwa indawo kukutya okukhawulezayo. Umphandi uEV Astakhova ufumanisa ukuba olu tshintsho ekusetyenzisweni kwewayini lulutsha lwaseSpeyin luyingozi kakhulu kwaye “ukulahlekelwa kwesithethe, kuquka nenkcubeko yewayini, kuyingozi eluntwini. Oku kuya kuba neziphumo ezibi kwilizwe, kuya kubangela umonakalo kumtsalane wabo kubatyali-mali kunye nabakhenkethi kwaye kwenzakalise umfanekiso welizwe labo elithandwa ngabantu baseSpain. " Ngokutsho kuka-Astakhova, inkcubeko yewayini kufuneka ihlale injalo njengoko "iyinxalenye yelifa lesizwe, inkcubeko kunye nenkcubeko yaseSpain."

Ngokwemveli, icandelo lewayini laseSpain lahlulwe kakhulu. Ookopolotyeni abancinci bewayini kunye neenkampani ezinkulu ziyinxalenye yemarike enye nangona zahluke kakhulu ngokobungakanani bemveliso, iwayini eveliswayo kunye nokuhamba kwemali. Ezinye ii-wineries zaseSpain zincinci kwaye ii-cooperatives azinayo i-savvy yokuthengisa eyaneleyo, uthungelwano lwentengiso kunye neempawu ezibhalisiweyo; ukongeza, baxhomekeke kuthungelwano losasazo olugxininiswe kakhulu kwaye ishishini lidla ngokudityaniswa ngokuthe nkqo. Oku kunzima ngakumbi kwezinye iindawo zewayini ezibangela ukugqithiswa kobonelelo kunye nokuncipha kwemfuno.

E-US nase-Australia, iindawo ezinkulu zewayini zivelisa izixa ezikhulu zewayini zisebenzisa iindidi ezahlukeneyo zediliya ezinohlobo olulodwa lwewayini ezivumela uqoqosho olubalulekileyo lwesikali kunye nokudala imveliso ekumgangatho ophezulu ngexabiso lexabiso elibonisa utyalo-mali kubuchwepheshe, kunye nentengiso. Iindawo ezitsha zewayini zijolise kakhulu kwintengiso kunezewayini zaseSpain ezigxile kakhulu kwimveliso yazo kunye nemveliso. Ukongeza, iinkampani zewayini eYurophu zigxile kwaye zijolise kwiimarike zamazwe ngamazwe ngokuqwalasela okutsha ekutyunjweni kwemvelaphi. Uninzi lweendawo ezincinci zewayini ziphuhlise iindlela zentengiso zelizwe kunye nezicwangciso zentengiso ebezinokuba nzima ukuziqhuba ngokwazo.

Umthengi ujonge Ngaphaya kweWayini

Kukho iinkcazo ezininzi zokuguqulwa kwe inkcubeko iwayini eSpeyin eziya ngaphaya kwexabiso, utshintsho kwingeniso yomntu, imiba yenkcubeko kunye nentlalo. Ukunyuka kwengeniso kunye nomgangatho ophezulu wokuphila ngenxa yemizi-mveliso kunye nokufudukela kwabantu ezidolophini kunxulunyaniswa nabemi abaxhalabele ngakumbi impilo kunye nokuba sempilweni kwaye ngenxa yoko ukuselwa okuphantsi kweziselo ezinxilisayo.

Abenzi bewayini banokhetho. Basenokwenza iwayini ezibenza bonwabe, okanye bavelise iwayini ezonwabisa abathengi. Iindlela zokuthengisa zemizi-mveliso yewayini ezijoliswe kumacandelo ahlukeneyo abathengi zinokunyusa ngempumelelo ukusetyenziswa kwewayini kwimarike yaseSpain. Utshintsho kwidemographics yabemi lutshintshe ukhetho lwesiselo kwiinketho ezilungelelaniswe ngcono kwiimfuno zolutsha, abantu basezidolophini.

Uphononongo lwakutsha nje lomthengi wewayini waseSpain lufumanise ukuba icandelo elithile lentengiso yasekuhlaleni lifuna iwayini “ezihambelana nokutya kwabo;” nangona kunjalo, olu phawu lunxulunyaniswa nobudala. Ummangalelwa emdala, kokukhona ukhetho olukhulu lodibaniso lokutya. Abantu abadala bathenga iwayini ezibomvu zexabiso eliphezulu kwiindibano ezikhethekileyo kunye nabahlobo kunye nosapho apho kukho ukutya kwaye kusenokwenzeka ukuba basebenzise iivenkile ezizodwa ukuthenga iwayini yabo. Imikhwa emitsha yokutya, kugxininiswa kwindlela yokuphila esempilweni kunye nenkangeleko yomzimba kunye namaphulo entengiso echasene notywala akhuthazwa lulawulo lukarhulumente abangele ukwehla kokusetyenziswa kwewayini.

 Ukwehla kokusetyenziswa kukwabonwa njengokulahlwa okuqhubelekayo kokutya kweMeditera. Nangona ubuhle bayo bubhengezwe ziingcali zokutya kunye namaziko ezempilo kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ibiphulukene nomhlaba amashumi amathathu eminyaka ngokuchasene nokunyuka okukhawulezayo kwaye kulungele ukutya ukutya. Ukutshintsha ukutya kuye kwandisa inyama, intlanzi, amaqanda, i-oyile kunye neemveliso zobisi kunye nokuncipha kweesiriyeli, iziqhamo, imifuno kunye newayini.

Imozulu yaseSpain ibangela ukunyuka okumangalisayo kweziselo ezithambileyo ziyonakalisa iwayini kwaye zigcinwe lutyalo-mali olukhulu kwiintengiso kunye nokuthengisa iimveliso ezibambeleyo kunye nezongezelelweyo ezilawulwa ziinkampani ezinkulu zamazwe ngamazwe.

Uphando luye lwafumanisa ukuba enye impawu ebalulekileyo yeSpanish Denominations of Origin (DO) kukuqaphela ukuba kubalulekile kubasetyhini kunye nabathengi abangenazo izidanga zaseyunivesithi. Ukuthengiswa kwewayini okuthoba olu lwazi kuvala iingcango kwicandelo elibalulekileyo labathengi bewayini. Abavelisi abanxibelelana nomgaqo-nkqubo wabo malunga nemiba eyahlukeneyo enxulumene ne-DO kunye neteknoloji kwaye babonise ulwazi kwifomathi elula ukuyiqonda baya kufumana inkxaso kwicandelo lemarike yabasetyhini.

Kwimarike eneempawu ezininzi zokungcamla kuya kuba kubaluleke ngakumbi njengesalathiso somthengi. Ibandakanywe kudidi "lwewayini ezingcatshiweyo" ziquka:

1. Wayingcamla iwayini ngaphambili (ibaluleke ngaphezu kolwazi lomntu)

2. Umfanekiso wewayini (ilizwe lemvelaphi, ukuphumelela imbasa okanye ibhaso)

3. Ummandla wemvelaphi

Ezikhethwayo

UKelsey Knight, Unsplash

Kukho indlela ecacileyo ekukhetheni iwayini esemgangathweni. Ngowe-1987, ama-78.11 ekhulwini ewayini eyayisetyenziswa eSpeyin yayizeziqhelekileyo okanye yayiziwayini zasetafileni; I-13.5 yepesenti yayiyi-appellation yemvelaphi, ngelixa ngo-2009, iwayini yetafile yehle yaya kuma-49.20 epesenti kunye ne-quality wines yafumana i-38.02 yepesenti yesabelo. Ukuhla kokusetyenziswa kwe wayini eSpain kubangelwe ikakhulu kukuhla kwemfuno ye wayini zetafile ngelixa ukusetyenziswa kwe wayini esemgangathweni kuhleli kwi 6.3 yeelitha inkunzi nganye kwangelo xesha linye. Olunye uqwalaselo kukuguquka kweendawo apho imveliso idliwe. Ngowe-1987, i-57.8 ekhulwini yokusetyenziswa kwewayini eSpeyin yayisekhaya kunye nama-42.2 ekhulwini ngaphandle kwekhaya okanye i-HORECA (Iihotele, iivenkile zokutyela, iifestile, njl.

Imingeni yeWinery

ISpain inezona ndawo zinkulu zezidiliya kwaye ngo-2020, ibekwe kwindawo yesithathu kuluhlu lwamazwe avelisa iwayini ngemveliso emalunga nezigidi ezingama-40.7 zeehektolitha. I-Spain ine-2.4 yezigidi zeehektare zemidiliya - eyona ndawo inkulu yezidiliya emhlabeni, ngokutsho kwe-International Organisation of Vine; nangona kunjalo, iphakathi kwawona macandelo ewayini anemveliso encinci eYurophu kwaye ingaphantsi kakhulu kwamanye amazwe afana neFransi okanye i-Italy.

Ithengisa eyona wayini inexabiso eliphantsi kwaye ayinayo imigaqo-nkqubo yokwahlula iwayini eyenza iSpain ibe yodwa phakathi kwabavelisi bewayini yemveli. Imodeli yoqoqosho enzulu elawulwa ziinkampani ezinkulu ezinempembelelo enamandla ephembelela urhulumente icelwa umngeni liqela elincinci labenzi bewayini abaqhutywa yi-terroir abacela umngeni kushishino lwaseSpain. Bakhe uthungelwano kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni kulo lonke ilizwe kwaye babandakanyeka kwiintshukumo zasekuhlaleni ezijolise ekuveliseni iwayini ezisemgangathweni ezinexabiso elongezelelweyo, ukubuyisela imimandla yewayini engahoywanga kunye neendidi zediliya kunye nokubuyisela inkcubeko yewayini yemveli.

balithandayo

Kumsitho wakutsha nje wewayini eManhattan, ndiye ndaziswa kwiiwayini ezimbini zaseSpain eziye zathandwa kakhulu:

Indawo yokuthengisa iwayini. LaFou

LaFou. Yasekwa ngo-2007 ngu-Ramon Roqueta Segales, ngenjongo-ukuvelisa iwayini eziquka uhlobo lwe-Garnacha kunye nengingqi yewayini ye-Terra Alta. Nangona usapho luka-Ramon Roqueta Segales lwaqala ukwenza iwayini ngenkulungwane ye-12, esi sigqeba sangoku se-c-suite siye sachukunyiswa ziintlobo ngeentlobo kunye nommandla ngelixa wayefunda i-oenology e-France, uSegales “wabhaqa” uhlobo lwe-Garnacha kunye nokubonakalisa ubuhle. Wagqiba ekubeni aphuhlise iprojekthi esekelwe kolu didi kwaye wahlala eTerra Alta enesithethe eside ekwenzeni iwayini. I-LaFou Cellars idibanisa intlonipho yesiko kunye nokuzinikela kwizinto ezintsha kunye nokuphucula.

Amanqaku ewayini

2020. LaFou els Amelers (inika imbeko kwimithi yealmondi ehlala ecaleni kwemidiliya kwizidiliya kwingingqi yeTerra Alta). Ipesenti ze-100 ze-White Garnacha. Isibizo. Terra Alta. Ukubunjwa komhlaba. Ubukhulu becala ilimestone enodongwe olulukiweyo olulukiweyo; eminye imimandla inomhlaba ongaphezulu onesanti (iindunduma zefosili).

Kwesona sidiliya sincinci iLaFou ivuna iidiliya kwangethuba ukongeza iasidi kwaye ikhuphe ezona ziqhamo zihle kakhulu ngelixa isiqhamo esisuka kwesona sidiliya sidala sivunwa xa amaqunube ekwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvuthwa.

Imidiliya ifuduselwa kumzi wewayini kwaye ifakwe efrijini ngoko nangoko kwi-5 degrees C kwaye ilandele inkqubo ehambelanayo: 1) Ifakwe kwiitanki zentsimbi engenakutyiwa ukuze kuphuhliswe undoqo omncinci kunye nomoya; 2) Ihanjiswe kwiivathi zeqanda zekhonkrithi ukunyusa umthamo, i-asidi kunye nokubonakaliswa kwe-varietal. Ishumi leepesenti lewayini ligugile kwimibhobho ye-oki ukukhulisa ubume, ubuhle kunye nobomi obude. Ukuvutshelwa kunye nokuguga kwiinyanga ezi-6 kwi-lees kwiivathi zeqanda zekhonkrithi kunye neetanki zensimbi ezingenasici. Ishumi leepesenti le wayini lidala kwi 300 L yeebhareli ze-oki.

Iwayini iveza ithowuni emthubi-mthubi emehlweni kwaye inika ivumba elimnandi elimnandi empumlweni elandelwa ngamaza esitrasi kunye neentyatyambo (cinga iirozi, iitulips), intwana yealmond kunye nokutsha kwamatye amanzi. Inkalakahla ivuyiswa sisakhiwo esinesisa kunye ne-asidi edlamkileyo ekhokelela kwisiphelo eside. Ukuba uthanda uPinot Grigio uya kufuna ukuba nobudlelwane bothando noLaFou. Yonwabela ngeetapas.

Indawo yokuthengisa iwayini. UMas Llunes

UMas Llunes. Ukwakhiwa kweLas Llunes Winery kwaqala ngo-2000; nangona kunjalo, iprojekthi yaqala ngo-1992 xa usapho lwakwaRoig lwaseGarriguella lwaphinda lwatyala izidiliya ezindala kwilifa losapho kunye namanye amasimi alithoba. Balima iihektare ezingama-40 kunye neMerlot, iGarnacha Tinta, iCabernet Sauvignon, iSyrah kunye nezixa ezincinci zeCarinena, iWhite Garnacha, iCabernet Franc kunye neRed Garnacha, besebenzisa iindlela zokukhulisa imidiliya ezihambelana nokusingqongileyo.

UFinca Butaros uvela kwintsimi yediliya yenkulungwane ye-19 enomhlaba oyisileyiti kwindawo yaseButaros, ekumantla esiphelo sikaMasipala waseGarriguella ukuya ngaseVilamaniscle. Imidiliya ivunwa ngesandla kwaye udidi ngalunye luvunwa ngokwalo. Ukuvutshelwa kugqitywe ngokwahlukileyo kwiitanki zensimbi ezingenasici, zipholile kwiqondo lokushisa lama-24/26 degrees C kunye nempompo enye yemihla ngemihla ngaphezulu kunye nokukrazula zonke iintsuku ezingama-30-40 emva kokuqala kokuvutshelwa ngokweentlobo ezahlukeneyo. Emva kokuba i-malolactic fermentation igqityiwe, iindidi ezimbini zixutywe kwaye zigugile unyaka omnye kwimibhobho ye-oki yaseFransi kwaye ilandelwa yiminyaka emi-3 kwibhotile.

Amanqaku ewayini

UMas Llunes. 2015. Butaros. Iintlobo ezahlukeneyo: i-60 ekhulwini yeCarignan; Iipesenti ezingama-40 zeRed Grenache. I-Finca Butaros yiwayini entsha yeflegi kwaye wavota eyona wayini ibalaseleyo eCatalonia. Iidiliya zisuka kwintsimi yediliya eyatyalwa ekupheleni kwe 19th century. Imidiliya ivunwa ngesandla xa ivuthiwe kwaye ivundiswe kwiitanki zentsimbi.

Emehlweni, irubhi emnyama ebomvu ukuya kumnyama. Impumlo ifumana icheri ebomvu evuthiweyo, amatye amanzi kunye nomhlaba omanzi odityaniswe neziqhamo ezomisiweyo neziqholo ezimnyama, icuba, iinkuni kunye namalahle. Inkalakahla ifumana iitannins ezinesibindi, ezidityanisiweyo ezikhokelela ekugqityweni okude. Hlanganisa nenyama yenkomo, i-pasta, i-veal okanye inkukhu.

Ngolwazi olongezelelweyo: IConferencia Española de Consejos Reguladores Vitivinícolas” imele iAppellation of Origin wines evela eSpain.

© UGqirha Elinor Garely. Inqaku lelungelo lokushicilela, kubandakanya iifoto, alinakuphinda liveliswe ngaphandle kwemvume ebhaliweyo evela kumbhali.

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