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Amanzi AseMhlabeni: Ngaba Ngokwenene Avela Kuthuli Lwesiphekepheke?

Uthuli lwaseMajukujukwini luzisa amanzi eMhlabeni
Ibhalwe ngu U-Linda S. Hohnholz

Iqela lamazwe ngamazwe lezenzululwazi linokuthi lisombulule imfihlelo engundoqo malunga nemvelaphi yamanzi eMhlabeni, emva kokufumana ubungqina obutsha obukholisayo obukhomba kumntu ongenakwenzeka - iLanga.

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Kwiphepha elitsha elipapashwe namhlanje kwijenali I-Astronomy yeNdalo, Iqela labaphandi abavela e-UK, e-Australia naseMelika bachaza indlela uhlalutyo olutsha lwe-asteroid yamandulo lubonisa ukuba iinkozo zothuli zangaphandle zithwala amanzi eMhlabeni njengoko iplanethi yenziwa.

Amanzi kwiinkozo aveliswa ngu imozulu yendawo, inkqubo apho amasuntswana ahlawuliswayo avela kwiLanga eyaziwa ngokuba ngumoya welanga aguqule ukwakheka kweekhemikhali zeenkozo ukuvelisa iimolekyuli zamanzi. 

Oku kufunyenweyo kunokuphendula umbuzo okudala uhleli wokuba uMhlaba onobutyebi obungaqhelekanga wazifumana phi iilwandlekazi ezigubungela i-70 yepesenti yomphezulu wawo - ngaphezu kwayo nayiphi na enye iplanethi enamatye kwiSolar System yethu. Inokunceda kwakhona uthumo lwasemajukujukwini kwixesha elizayo ukufumana imithombo yamanzi kumazwe angenamoya.

Izazinzulu ngeeplanethi ziye zabhideka kangangamashumi eminyaka malunga nomthombo weelwandlekazi zomhlaba. Enye ithiyori icebisa ukuba olunye uhlobo lwelitye lendawo elithwala amanzi elaziwa ngokuba zii-asteroids zohlobo lwe-C lalinokuzisa amanzi kwiplanethi kwinqanaba lokugqibela lokusekwa kwayo kwiminyaka eyi-4.6 yeebhiliyoni eyadlulayo.  

Ukuvavanya loo nkcazo-bungcali, izazinzulu ziye zahlalutya ngaphambili i-isotopic 'yeminwe' yeechunks ze-C-type asteroids eziwele eMhlabeni njengeemeteorite ezityebileyo ngamanzi e-carbonaceous chondrite. Ukuba umlinganiselo wehydrogen nedeuterium kumanzi eemeteorite ulingana nowamanzi asemhlabeni, izazinzulu zinokugqiba kwelokuba i<em>meteorites yodidi lwe-C ibisenokuba ngumthombo.

Iziphumo azizange zicace kangako. Ngelixa ezinye iimeteorites ezityebileyo ngamanzi 'deuterium/hydrogen fingerprints ziye zadibana ngokwenene namanzi oMhlaba, uninzi aluzange. Ngokwe-avareji, le minwe yolwelo yeemeteorites ayizange idibane namanzi afumaneka kwingubo yoMhlaba kunye neelwandle. Endaweni yoko, uMhlaba uneminwe eyahlukileyo, ekhaphukhaphu kancinane ye-isotopic. 

Ngamanye amazwi, ngelixa amanye amanzi oMhlaba kufuneka asuka kwi-C-type meteorites, uMhlaba owenziweyo kufuneka ufumene amanzi ubuncinane kumthombo wokukhanya we-isotopically ovela kwenye indawo kwiSolar System. 

Iqela elikhokelwa yiYunivesithi yaseGlasgow lisebenzise inkqubo yohlalutyo ebukhali ebizwa ngokuba yi-atom probe tomography ukuphonononga iisampuli ezivela kuhlobo olwahlukileyo lwelitye lendawo eyaziwa ngokuba yi-S-type asteroid, ejikeleza kufutshane nelanga kuneentlobo ze-C. Iisampulu abazihlalutyileyo zavela kwi-asteroid ebizwa ngokuba yi-Itokawa, eyaqokelelwa sisazulu saseJapan iHayabusa yaza yabuyela eMhlabeni ngo-2010.

IAtom probe tomography yenza ukuba iqela likwazi ukulinganisa ubume beathom yeenkozo iathomu enye ngexesha kwaye libone iimolekyuli zamanzi. Iziphumo zabo zibonisa ukuba isixa esibalulekileyo samanzi saveliswa ngaphantsi nje komphezulu weenkozo ezinothuli ezivela e-Itokawa ngemozulu yendawo. 

Isixokelelwano sesijikelezi-langa samandulo sasiyindawo enothuli kakhulu, ibonelela ngamathuba amaninzi okuba amanzi aveliswe phantsi komphezulu wamasuntswana othuli olusemajukujukwini. Olu thuli lutyebileyo ngamanzi, abaphandi bacebisa, beluya kunisa kuMhlaba wokuqala ecaleni kwe-C-type asteroids njengenxalenye yokuhanjiswa kweelwandle zoMhlaba.

UGq Luke Daly, weYunivesithi yaseGlasgow's School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, ngumbhali okhokelayo weli phepha. UGqr Daly uthe: “Imimoya yelanga yimithombo ye-hydrogen kunye ne-helium ion ephuma rhoqo eLangeni iye esibhakabhakeni. Xa ezo ion zehydrogen zibetha kwindawo engenamoya njengeasteroid okanye isuntswana lothuli olusesijubeni, zigqobhoza kumashumi ambalwa ee<em>nanometer ngaphantsi komhlaba, apho zinokuchaphazela imichiza yelitye. Ngokuhamba kwexesha, impembelelo ye-'space weathering' yee-ion ze-hydrogen zinokukhupha ii-athomu ze-oksijini ezaneleyo kwizinto ezisematyeni ukuze zenze i-H.2O - amanzi - avaleleke ngaphakathi kweeminerali kwi-asteroid.

“Okubalulekileyo kukuba, la manzi aphuma kumoya welanga aveliswa sisixokelelwano sangaphambili sesijikelezi-langa anokukhanya okukodwa. Oko kubonisa ngamandla ukuba uthuli olucolekileyo, oluphetshethwa ngumoya welanga lwaza lwatsalwa kuMhlaba oyilwayo kwiibhiliyoni zeminyaka eyadlulayo, lunokuba ngumthombo womthombo wamanzi angekhoyo esi sijikelezi-langa.”

UProf. Phil Bland, uJohn Curtin onguNjingalwazi oBekekileyo kwiSikolo soMhlaba kunye neeSayensi zePlanethi kwiYunivesithi yaseCurtin kunye nombhali-mbhali weli phepha uthe “iAtom probe tomography isenza sijonge ngokweenkcukacha eziphangaleleyo kwiinanometers zokuqala ezingama-50 okanye ngaphezulu. yeenkozo zothuli e-Itokawa, ejikeleza ilanga kwimijikelo yeenyanga ezili-18. Kwasivumela ukuba sibone ukuba esi siqwenga songqameko semozulu sasemajukujukwini sinamanzi awaneleyo, kangangokuba ukuba sinokuwanyusa, anokuba malunga neelitha ezingama-20 kwikyubhic mitha nganye yelitye.”

Omnye umbhali uProf. Michelle Thompson weSebe lezeNzululwazi, i-Atmospheric, kunye nePlanethi yePlanethi kwiYunivesithi yasePurdue wongezelela: “Luhlobo lomlinganiselo obungenakuba nokwenzeka ngaphandle kobu bugcisa bumangalisayo. Isinika ukuqonda okungaqhelekanga malunga nokuba amasuntswana amancinane othuli adada esithubeni anokusinceda njani ukuba silungelelanise iincwadi kulwakhiwo lwe-isotopic lwamanzi oMhlaba, kwaye lusinike imikhondo emitsha yokunceda ukusombulula imfihlakalo yemvelaphi yawo. ”

Abaphandi bathathele ingqalelo kakhulu ukuqinisekisa ukuba iziphumo zovavanyo lwabo zichanekile, besenza imifuniselo eyongezelelweyo neminye imithombo yokuqinisekisa iziphumo zabo.

UGqr Daly wongeze wathi: “Inkqubo ye-atom yokuhlola i-tomography kwiYunivesithi yaseCurtin ikumgangatho wehlabathi, kodwa ayizange isetyenziswe ngokwenene kuhlobo lohlalutyo lwe-hydrogen besilwenza apha. Besifuna ukuqiniseka ukuba iziphumo ebesizibona zichanekile. Ndibonise iziphumo zethu zokuqala kwinkomfa yeLunar kunye nePlanethi yeSayensi ngo-2018, kwaye ndabuza ukuba ngaba nabaphi na oogxa bethu abaza kusinceda siqinisekise iziphumo zethu ngeesampulu ezizezabo. Ukusonwabisa kwethu, oogxa bethu beNASA Johnson Space Centre kunye neDyunivesithi yaseHawai'i eMānoa, ePurdue, eVirginia nakwiYunivesithi yaseMntla Arizona, i-Idaho kunye nelebhu zesizwe zaseSandia zonke zinikezele ngoncedo. Basinika iisampulu zeeminerali ezifanayo ezifakwe kwi-helium kunye ne-deuterium endaweni ye-hydrogen, kwaye ukusuka kwiziphumo ze-athomu ye-athomu yezo zixhobo ngokukhawuleza kwacaca ukuba into esiyibonayo kwi-Itokawa yayiyimvelaphi yangaphandle.

“Abalingane abanike inkxaso yabo kolu phando ngokwenene balingana neqela lamaphupha emozulu, ngoko sichulumancile kakhulu bubungqina esibuqokeleleyo. Inokuvula umnyango wokuqonda kakuhle ngakumbi ukuba iSolar System yayikhangeleka njani nendlela uMhlaba neelwandle zawo ezakhiwa ngayo.”

Unjingalwazi uJohn Bradley, weYunivesithi yaseHawai'i eMānoa, eHonolulu, umbhali-mbhali wephepha, wongezelela: Kutshanje kwiminyaka elishumi edlulileyo, ingcamango yokuba i-radiation yomoya welanga ihambelana nemvelaphi yamanzi kwinkqubo yelanga. , engabalulekanga kangako kulwandlekazi loMhlaba, bekuya kubangwa ngokuthandabuza. Ngokubonisa okokuqala ukuba amanzi aveliswa endaweni yokuhlala kumphezulu we-asteroid, uphononongo lwethu lwakha kumzimba oqokelelwayo wobungqina bokuba ukusebenzisana komoya welanga kunye neenkozo zothuli ezinothuli oksijini ngokwenene zivelisa amanzi. 

“Ekubeni uthuli olwaluluninzi kulo lonke i-nebula yelanga ngaphambi kokuba kuqale ukunyuswa kweplanethisimal ngokungenakuthintelwa, amanzi aveliswa ngulo matshini ahambelana ngqo nemvelaphi yamanzi kwiinkqubo zeplanethi kwaye mhlawumbi nokwakhiwa kwe-isotopic yeelwandle zoMhlaba.

Uqikelelo lwabo lokuba angakanani na amanzi anokuqukunjelwa kwindawo enomoya osemajukujukwini lukwabonisa indlela abakhenkethi basemajukujukwini bexesha elizayo abanokuvelisa amanzi nakwezona planethi zibonakala zingumqwebedu. 

Unjingalwazi onguNjingalwazi uHope Ishii weYunivesithi yaseHawai’i eMānoa wathi: “Enye yeengxaki zokuphononongwa kwendawo yoluntu kwixesha elizayo yindlela oosomajukujuku abaya kuwafumana ngayo amanzi aneleyo ukuze bahlale bephila baze bafeze imisebenzi yabo ngaphandle kokuhamba nawo kuhambo lwabo. . 

"Sicinga ukuba kunengqiqo ukucinga ukuba inkqubo efanayo yemozulu yendawo eyenza amanzi e-Itokawa iya kuba yenzekile kwinqanaba elithile okanye kwelinye kumazwe amaninzi angenamoya njengeNyanga okanye i-asteroid Vesta. Oko kusenokuthetha ukuba abahloli basemajukujukwini banokukwazi ukuseta amanzi amatsha ngokuthe ngqo eluthulini oluphezu kwesi sijikelezi-langa. Kuyavuyisa ukucinga ukuba iinkqubo ezenze izijikelezi-langa zinokunceda ukuxhasa ubomi babantu njengoko sifikelela ngaphaya koMhlaba.” 

UGqr Daly wongeze wathi: “Iprojekthi ye-NASA ye-Artemis izimisele ukuseka isiseko esisisigxina eNyangeni. Ukuba umphezulu wenyanga unomthombo wamanzi ofanayo ofunyenwe ngumoya welanga olu phando lutyhilwe kwi-Itokawa, luya kubonisa umthombo omkhulu kunye nexabiso lokunceda ekufezekiseni loo njongo. "

Iphepha leqela, elinomxholo othi, 'Solar Wind Contribution's to the Earth's Oceans', lipapashwe kwi I-Astronomy yeNdalo. 

Abaphandi abavela kwiYunivesithi yaseGlasgow, iYunivesithi yaseCurtin, iYunivesithi yaseSydney, iYunivesithi yaseOxford, iYunivesithi yaseHawai'i eMānoa, iMyuziyam yeMbali yeNdalo, i-Idha National Laboratory, i-Lockheed Martin, iSandia National Laboratories, i-NASA Johnson Space Centre, IYunivesithi yaseVirginia, iYunivesithi yaseNorthern Arizona kunye neYunivesithi yasePurdue zonke zibe negalelo kwiphepha. 

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U-Linda S. Hohnholz

U-Linda Hohnholz ubengumhleli oyintloko eTurboNews iminyaka emininzi.
Uyakuthanda ukubhala kwaye unika ingqalelo kwiinkcukacha.
Ukwaphetheyo wonke umxholo wepremiyamu kunye nokukhutshwa kweendaba.

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