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Iziphumo ezintsha zeJupiter ezivela kwiNASA Juno Probe

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Izinto ezintsha ezifunyenweyo ezivela kwi-NASA yeJuno probe ejikeleza iJupiter ibonelela ngomfanekiso opheleleyo wendlela iplanethi eyahlukileyo kunye nemibalabala yeempawu zomoya ezinikezela ngemikhondo malunga neenkqubo ezingabonakaliyo ezingaphantsi kwamafu. Iziphumo ziqaqambisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwamabhanti kunye nemimandla yamafu ejikeleze iJupiter, kunye nezitshingitshane zepolar kunye neNdawo Enkulu eBomvu.

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Abaphandi bapapashe amaphepha amaninzi malunga nokufunyanwa kwe-atmospheric kaJuno namhlanje kwijenali yeSayensi kunye neJenali yoPhando lweGeophysical: iiPlanethi. Amaphepha ongezelelweyo avele kwimiba emibini yamva nje yeeLeta zoPhando lweGeophysical.

“Oku kuqwalaselweyo kutsha kaJuno kuvula ityesi yobuncwane yolwazi olutsha malunga nezinto ezibonwayo zikaJupiter,” utshilo uLori Glaze, umlawuli wecandelo lesayensi yeplanethi yeNASA kwikomkhulu learhente eWashington. “Iphepha ngalinye lisikhanyisela kwiinkalo ezahlukeneyo zenkqubo yesijikelezi-langa-umzekelo omangalisayo wendlela amaqela ethu enzululwazi awohlukeneyo alomeleza ngayo ukuqonda isixokelelwano sethu selanga.”

UJuno ungene kumjikelezo weJupiter ngo-2016. Ngexesha lokudlula kwesiphekepheke angama-37 kwiplanethi ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, uluhlu olukhethekileyo lwezixhobo luye lwakroba ngaphantsi komgangatho walo wamafu.

Ngaphambili, uJuno wasothusa ngeengcebiso zokuba izinto ezenzeka kumoya kaJupiter ziye zanzulu kunokuba bekulindelwe,” utshilo uScott Bolton, umphandi oyintloko weJuno ovela kwiZiko loPhando laseMazantsi-ntshona eSan Antonio kunye nombhali okhokelayo wephepha leSayensi yeJenali ngobunzulu beJupiter's vortices. "Ngoku, siqala ukuhlanganisa zonke ezi ziqwenga kwaye sifumane ukuqonda kwethu okokuqala malunga nendlela osebenza ngayo umoya omhle weJupiter kunye nobundlobongela - kwi-3D."

I-Juno's microwave radiometer (MWR) ivumela oososayensi bemishini ukuba bakrobe ngaphantsi kweencopho zamafu zeJupiter kwaye baphonononge ubume bezaqhwithi zayo ezininzi. Eyona idumileyo kwezi ziqhwithi yi-anticyclone eyaziwa ngokuba yi-Great Red Spot. Ububanzi kunoMhlaba, le crimson vortex iye yabangela umdla kwizazinzulu ukusukela oko yafunyanwa phantse kwiinkulungwane ezimbini ezidlulileyo.

Iziphumo ezitsha zibonisa ukuba iinkanyamba zishushu phezulu, kunye noxinzelelo lwe-atmospheric ephantsi, ngelixa zibandayo emazantsi, kunye noxinzelelo oluphezulu. I-Anticyclones, ezijikeleza kwelinye icala, zibanda phezulu kodwa zifudumala ezantsi.

Iziphumo zikwabonisa ukuba ezi zitshingitshane zide kakhulu kunoko bekulindelekile, kwaye ezinye zandisa iimayile ezingama-60 (iikhilomitha ezili-100) ngaphantsi kweencopho zamafu kunye nezinye, kubandakanya iGreat Red Spot, eziya ngaphaya kweekhilomitha ezingama-200 (iikhilomitha ezingama-350). Oku kukhwankqisayo kufunyenweyo kubonisa ukuba imisinga igubungela imimandla engaphaya kwaleyo apho amanzi adibana khona kuze kuvele amafu, ngaphantsi kobunzulu apho ukukhanya kwelanga kufudumeza umoya. 

Umphakamo kunye nobukhulu beNdawo Enkulu eBomvu kuthetha ukuxinana kobunzima bomoya ngaphakathi kwesiphango obunokuthi bubonwe ngezixhobo ezifunda umhlaba womxhuzulane weJupiter. Iimpukane ezimbini ezisondeleyo zeJuno ngaphezu kwebala elidumileyo leJupiter lanika ithuba lokukhangela utyikityo lomxhuzulane wesaqhwithi kwaye luncedisane neziphumo ze-MWR kubunzulu bayo. 

Ngokuhamba kukaJuno ezantsi ngaphaya komgangatho welifu likaJupiter malunga ne-130,000 mph (209,000 kph) iJuno izazinzulu zikwazile ukulinganisa isantya sotshintsho oluncinci oluyi-0.01 millimeter ngomzuzwana sisebenzisa i-eriyali yokulandelela ye-NASA ye-Deep Space Network, ukusuka kumgama ongaphezulu kwe-400 yezigidi zeemayile (650) isigidi seekhilomitha). Oku kwenze ukuba iqela likwazi ukucinezela ubunzulu beNdawo Enkulu eBomvu ukuya malunga neemayile ezingama-300 (iikhilomitha ezingama-500) ngaphantsi kweencopho zamafu.

"Ukuchaneka okufunekayo ukuze ufumane amandla omxhuzulane we-Great Red Spot ngexesha lokubhabha kukaJulayi ka-2019 kuyamangalisa," utshilo uMarzia Parisi, isazinzulu seJuno esivela kwi-NASA yeJet Propulsion Laboratory eMazantsi eCalifornia kunye nombhali okhokelayo wephepha kwiJenali yeSayensi malunga nokugqwesa komhlaba. Indawo Ebomvu Enkulu. “Ukwazi ukuncedisana neziphumo ze-MWR kubunzulu kusinika intembelo enkulu yokuba imifuniselo yomxhuzulane yexesha elizayo eJupiter iya kuvelisa iziphumo ezinomdla ngokufanayo.” 

Amabhanti kunye neZowuni

Ukongeza kwii-cyclones kunye ne-anticyclones, i-Jupiter iyaziwa ngamabhanti ayo ahlukeneyo kunye nemimandla - iibhanti ezimhlophe kunye ezibomvu zamafu ezijikeleza iplanethi. Imimoya eyomeleleyo esempuma-ntshona ehamba kumacala achaseneyo yahlula amabhanti. Ngaphambili uJuno wafumanisa ukuba le mimoya, okanye imisinga yejet, ifikelela kubunzulu obumalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-2,000 (malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-3,200). Abaphandi basazama ukusombulula imfihlelo yendlela i-jet streams eyenzeka ngayo. Idatha eqokelelwe yi-MWR kaJuno ngexesha lokudlula okuninzi iveza umkhondo omnye onokwenzeka: ukuba irhasi ye-ammonia ye-atmosphere ihamba inyuka isihla ngolungelelwaniso olumangalisayo kunye nemisinga yejethi ephawulweyo.

"Ngokulandela i-ammonia, sifumene iiseli ezijikelezayo kumantla nasezantsi kwi-hemispheres efana nendalo 'kwiiseli zeFerrel,' ezilawula uninzi lwemozulu yethu apha eMhlabeni", utshilo uKeren Duer, umfundi ophumelele kwi-Weizmann Institute. weNzululwazi kwaSirayeli kunye nombhali okhokelayo weJenali yeSayensi iphepha kwiiseli ezifana neFerrel kwiJupiter. "Ngelixa uMhlaba uneseli enye yeFerrel kwihemisphere nganye, iJupiter inesibhozo - inye ubuncinane ngokuphindwe ngama-30."

Idatha ye-MWR kaJuno ikwabonisa ukuba amabhanti kunye nemimandla idlula kwinguqu ejikeleze iimayile ezingama-40 (iikhilomitha ezingama-65) phantsi kwamafu amanzi eJupiter. Kwiindawo ezinzulu, iibhanti zeJupiter zikhanya ngakumbi kukukhanya kwe-microwave kunezowuni ezingabamelwane. Kodwa kumanqanaba anzulu, ngaphantsi kwamafu amanzi, okuchaseneyo kuyinyaniso - ebonisa ukufana nolwandle lwethu.

Eli nqanaba silibiza ngokuba yi-'Jovicline' ngokuthelekisa umaleko wenguqu obonwa kulwandlekazi loMhlaba, owaziwa ngokuba yi-thermocline - apho amanzi olwandle atshintsha kabukhali ukusuka ekubeni shushu ukuya kubanda," utshilo uLeigh Fletcher, isazinzulu seJuno kwiYunivesithi. yeLeicester eUnited Kingdom kunye nombhali okhokelayo wephepha kwiJenali yoPhando lweGeophysical: Iiplanethi eziqaqambisa uqwalaselo lweMicrowave kaJuno lwamabhanti apholileyo kaJupiter kunye nemimandla.

IiNkanyamba zePolar

UJuno ngaphambili wafumanisa ulungelelwaniso lwepolygonal lwezaqhwithi ezinkulu zesaqhwithi kuzo zombini iipali zeJupiter-ezisibhozo zicwangciswe ngokwepateni ye-octagonal emantla kwaye ezintlanu zicwangciswe ngokwepateni yepentagonal emazantsi. Ngoku, kwiminyaka emihlanu emva koko, izazinzulu zemishini ezisebenzisa uphononongo sisiphekepheke sikaJovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) bafumanise ukuba ezi ziganeko zomoya ziyakwazi ukumelana nokuqina, zihleli kwindawo enye.

"Izaqhwithi zeJupiter zichaphazela intshukumo yomnye nomnye, zibangele ukuba bajike malunga nesikhundla sokulingana," utshilo u-Alessandro Mura, umphandi weJuno kwiZiko leSizwe leAstrophysics eRoma kunye nombhali okhokelayo wephepha lamva nje kwiiLetter zoPhando zeGeophysical malunga ne-oscillations kunye nokuzinza. kwiinkanyamba zeJupiter. "Ukuziphatha kwezi zinto zicothayo zicebisa ukuba zineengcambu ezinzulu."

Idatha ye-JIRAM ikwabonisa ukuba, njengezaqhwithi eMhlabeni, ezi zitshingitshane zifuna ukuya ngaphaya, kodwa iinkanyamba ezikumbindi wepali nganye zizityhalela ngasemva. Le bhalansi ichaza apho iinkanyamba zihlala khona kunye namanani ahlukeneyo kwipali nganye. 

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