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Kuphephe Ukukhathazeka Kwewayini. Yonwaba kwaye usele iBordeaux Les Legendes

Yonwaba. Sela iBordeaux

Ayothusi into yokuba iwayini ikho kwimibala emininzi-ukusuka ekucaceni njengamanzi, ukuya kubunzulu, kumnyama kwaye kuchumile njengevelvet yesilika. Ayothusi ke into yokuba iwayini yaseBordeaux iphakathi kwezona zidumileyo kwindalo iphela.

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  1. Ummandla weBordeaux ngoyena mmandla mkhulu uvelisa iwayini eFrance kwaye ubandakanya iihektare ezingama-280,000 zemidiliya kunye ne-60 Appellations d'Origine Controlees (AOCs).
  2. Ukwenza iwayini kwicandelo elisemazantsi-ntshona eFrance kwaqala xa kwafika amaRoma (cinga ngenkulungwane yokuqala).
  3. Nangona indawo idunyiswa ngenxa yeewayini zayo ezibomvu, kuyathakazelisa ukuqaphela ukuba olu dumo lusandula ukufunyanwa.

Intabalala yewayini

Ngokwembali, ummandla weBordeaux wawunqweneleka (ubukhulu becala) iwayini ezimhlophe ezinabavelisi bewayini ezinikezela ngaphezulu ngeepesenti ezingama-80 zeediliya zabo eSauternes, eBarsac, eBordeaux Blanc naseGraves.

Kwakungekho i-1700s ukuba iwayini ebomvu evela eBordeaux unomdla kwindawo yentengiso kwaye abathanda iwayini abangamaNgesi bayamkela iwayini ebomvu ye Bordeaux esuka eGraves bayithiya igama elingu Claret (klairette). Nje ukuba abenzi bewayini baqaphele ukuthengwa kwewayini ebomvu, baqala ukutshintsha ukusuka kwimhlophe ukuya kwimveliso yewayini ebomvu. Inguqu yaba semthethweni kuHlelo luka-1855 oluchonga abona bavelisi babalaseleyo kummandla, babekwa kwinqanaba 1-5. Ukwahlulahlula akukaze kuguqulwe (ngaphandle kwakanye) nangona zininzi ezinye iwayini ezibalaseleyo.

Ukungqina ukuba le ndawo ithandwa kangakanani ekwenzeni iwayini, qaphela into yokuba lo mmandla uxhasa abanini beethenda ezingama-6100 kunye nabanye abalimi abavelisa iibhotile zewayini ezingama-650 (2019). Isivuno se2019 sibandakanya iipesenti ezingama-85.2 ezibomvu; Iipesenti ezingama-4.4 zaphakama; Iipesenti eziyi-9.2 zimhlophe zimile, kwaye iipesenti eziyi-1.2 zimhlophe.

I-Bordeaux ngoyena mqeshi ophambili kwi-viticulture kunye nomzi mveliso wewayini, onikezela ngaphezulu kwe-55,000 yemisebenzi ethe ngqo nengathanga ngqo. Amathathu kuwo onke amafa kwezolimo amane kwingingqi akhulisa izidiliya kwaye zizonke zingama-4, 5,6000 iwayini ezenza iwayini ye-AOC. Kula ma-56 eepesenti ngamashishini aphethwe lusapho, ngomndilili ubungakanani obuyi-19.6ha obunezidiliya ezinkulu kwi-Entre deux Mers naseMedoc. Uqikelelo lweepesenti ezi-5 zomhlaba opheleleyo weBordeaux ungowamafa ahleliweyo ngaphesheya kweebhanki zaseKhohlo nasekunene (winescholarguild.org).

Kummandla, abanini beeshishini le-chateaux bahlala bethengisa iidiliya zabo ngomntu ongakhathaliyo osebenza njengomntu ophakathi ngokuthenga ulwabiwo lwabo lomdiliya kunye nokuthengisa / ukusasaza iwayini ebangelwe sisiphumo. Kwiwayini eveliswe kwingingqi yase Bordeaux, iipesenti ezingama-58 zithengiswa e-France ze iipesenti ezingama-43 ezishiyekileyo zithunyelwe kwilizwe jikelele.

Hayi kwezopolitiko. IJografi: Ekhohlo, Ekunene, Phakathi

Ummandla weBordeaux wahlulwe ngokommandla weli chibi laseGironde laba yiBhanki yasekhohlo, iBhanki yaseLungelo kunye ne-Entre-Deux-Mer (indawo ephakathi kweGironde Estuary kunye noMlambo iDordogne).

Ibhanki yasekhohlo. Abathandi bewayini bafumana iMedoc, i-Graves kunye ne-Sauternais (eyona ndawo ilungileyo-isiseko segrabile)

• Iimpawu zeMedoc Cabernet Sauvignon; iidiliya zikhula kumxube womhlaba oludongwe kunye nemithambeka yegrabile.

Amanqaku engcwaba ICabernet Sauvignon; umhlaba owenziwe ngomhlaba owenziwe ngamatye anqabileyo.

• I-Sauternais ineeSauternes (iwayini emhlophe emnandi); umhlaba omninzi wegrabile owenza ukuba kukwazi ukuhambisa amanzi, ukuthintela iidiliya ekubeni namanzi amaninzi.

Ibhanki yasekunene. Abathandi bewayini bafumana iLibournais, iBalye neBourg (umhlaba olawulwa ngodongwe kunye nelitye lekalika)

• KwiLibournais kukho iSaint-Emilion, iMontagne, iPomerol, iFronsac, iCotes de Castillon; ubukhulu becala lilitye lekalika, umhlaba oyisanti kunye nodongwe.

• Iimpawu zeBalye iMerlot, iCabernet Sauvignon kunye neCabernet Franc; ubukhulu becala udongwe kumhlaba wekalika.

• IBourg ibonakalisa iMalbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, kunye neSemillon ngokunjalo neColombard neUngi; isanti, udongwe, umhlaba kunye nelimestone.

I-Entre-Deux-Mers (kuphela iwayini ezimhlophe ezithwala isibizo se-AOC); ICadillac, iLoupiac, iSainte-Croix-du Mont

• I-Cadillac (eyaziwa ngeewayini ezimhlophe eziswiti) ineempawu ze Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc kunye ne Sauvignon Gris; ngumhlaba onekratshi nowomhlaba onegrabile.

• Iimpawu zeLoupiac uSemillon, uSauvignon Blanc, uMuscadelle kunye noSauvignon Gris; udongwe, ilitye lekalika elenziwe ngamatye kunye nodongwe.

• I-Sante-Croix-du Mont ibonakalisa uSemillon, uMuscadelle, kunye noSauvignon; udongwe, ilitye lekalika.

Iwayini ezimhlophe zeBordeaux zihlala zenziwa kunye ne-Sauvignon Blanc kunye ne-Semillon kwaye ziyaziwa njengezidlamkileyo nezintsha (i-Entre-Deux-Mers) zithambile kwaye zithanda i-citrus (iPessac-Leognan).

Iwayini ezibomvu ezivela eBordeaux zihlala zizele ngokuphakathi kunye nevumba le currants ezimnyama, iiplums kunye nomhlaba okanye igrabile emanzi. Kwinkalakahla, iprofayili yencasa ibandakanya ubuncinci, iziqhamo kunye nezinongo, ukuhambisa iitannins ezininzi (zilungele ukuguga).

I-Bordeaux ebomvu ihlala idityaniswa neelebheli ezichaza ukubizwa kwewayini endaweni yokuba kudityaniswe iindidi ezithile zomdiliya. Iindidi ezimhlophe ziqulathe iipesenti ezili 100 zemidiliya etyaliweyo, ne 5 pesenti Sauvignon Blanc kunye ne Semillon ene pesenti enye Muscadelle neminye imhlophe.

Kwimidiliya etyalwe kulo mmandla, iipesenti ezingama-89 ziintlobo ezibomvu, iipesenti ezingama-59 zeMerlot, iipesenti ezili-19 zeCabernet Sauvignon, iipesenti ezisi-8 zeCabernet Franc kunye neepesenti ezimbini zokugqibela ziquka iPetit Verdot, iMalbec okanye iCarmenere.

Nokuba yiMozulu

Imidiliya yaseBordeaux iyonwabele ixesha elide, elifudumeleyo lasehlotyeni, intwasahlobo emanzi kunye nokuwa, kulandele ubusika obulinganiselweyo. ILa Foret des Landes, ihlathi elikhulu lemithi yompayini, ikhusela ummandla weBordeaux kwimpembelelo yemozulu yaselwandle yeAtlantic Ocean; Nangona kunjalo, utshintsho lwemozulu luchaphazela ummandla kwaye lubangela isivuno. I-Institut National de l'origine et de la Qualite (INAO), icandelo le-Ofisi yoMphathiswa Wezolimo e-France, ichithe iminyaka elishumi iphanda ngotshintsho lwemozulu. Izazinzulu zewayini kunye nabalimi eBordeaux bayithathele ingqalelo impembelelo yokufudumala kobushushu bomhlaba kwaye iindidi ezintsha ezisandula ukwamkelwa zikulungele ukuthoba uxinzelelo lwamanzi olunxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu kunye nemijikelo emifutshane yokukhula.

NgoJuni, 2019, iBordeaux kunye neBordeaux Superieur Associations zivume ukongezwa kwezifo ezisixhenxe ezintsha kunye neentlobo zemidiliya ezinganyangekiyo ngenxa yobushushu kwaye oku kubonisa ulungiso lokuqala lweentlobo ezili-13 zommandla ukususela ngo-1935. Nacional, Castets, Arinarnoa), kunye nomhlophe (Alvarinho, kunye neLilorila) ngokuqala kokutyala iintlobo ezintsha ezicwangciselwe lo nyaka. Iindidi ezintsha zikhawulelwe kwiipesenti ezintlanu zommandla wesidiliya esityaliweyo kwaye azinakho ukubala ngaphezulu kweshumi lepesenti yomxube wokugqibela wawo nawuphi na umbala.

I-Bordeaux iazise ezinye iindlela ze-enological nezolimo ukujongana notshintsho lwemozulu kubandakanya: ukulungelelanisa ezona ndlela zilungileyo kwiimfuno zesivuno ngasinye-ukuthena okucothisiweyo, ukwandisa ukuphakama kwesiqu somdiliya ukunciphisa indawo yamagqabi; ukunciphisa ukunciphisa igqabi ukukhusela iidiliya elangeni; ukuhlengahlengisa iisayithi zeembiza ukunciphisa uxinzelelo lwamanzi (ngokusisigxina okanye ngokwamaxesha azaliswe ngamanzi akhokelela kwimeko ye-anaerobic); ukuvuna ebusuku nokucutha ukuxinana kwezityalo.

Inokuzinza

Ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-65 zezidiliya zaseBordeaux ziqinisekisiwe ngokusingqongileyo (umqobo omtsha wommandla). I-Bordeaux ikhokelela kuzo zonke ii-AOPs zaseFrance ngesixa seziQinisekiso zeXabiso eliPhakamileyo lezeNdalo (HVE) kwimveliso yabo yewayini, bafikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuqinisekiswa okuzinzileyo eFrance kunye neepesenti ezingama-30 zokunyuka kwezolimo.

Abenzi bewayini eBordeaux babelana ngombono kunye nokuzibophelela ekujonganeni notshintsho lwemozulu ngokugcina ubuncwane bamanzi kunye namandla; ukukhusela indalo; kunye nokuxhasa iintlobo ngeentlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana ukusuka kweyona mikhwa ilungileyo yesidiliya iye kwenye indlela yokupakisha. Ukuzinikela kuzinzo kubandakanya ukomeleza ukhuseleko lwabasebenzi, ukoneliseka emsebenzini kunye noqeqesho kunye nophuhliso / uqeqesho kwizizukulwana zangoku nezexesha elizayo.

I-Chateau yeWayini ebalulekileyo eBordeaux

I-Domaines Barons de Rothschild (i-Lafite) I-Les Legendes Yenza iiWayini eziLungileyo zifikeleleke

Iimbali zewayini zeLafite kunye neLatour zithatha iinkulungwane. Ixesha lokuqala igama leLafite livela emva kwinkulungwane ye-13th (1234) xa uGombaud de Lafite, i-abbot yeVertheuil Monastery (emantla ePauillac) ikhankanyiwe. Igama elithi Lafite livela kwigama lolwimi lweGascon "la hite" okanye i-hillock.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba izidiliya zazisele zikhona kwipropathi xa usapho lakwaSegur lwaluququzelela isidiliya ngenkulungwane ye-17 kwaye iLafite yaqala ukwaziwa njengendawo enkulu yokwenza iwayini. Ngenkulungwane ye-18 iLafite yaqala ukukhangela imakethi yaseLondon kwaye yaqatshelwa kwiGazethi yaseLondon (1707) ichaza iwayini njengezicatshulwa ezintsha zaseFrance. URobert Walpole, Inkulumbuso, uthenge umphanda weLafite rhoqo kwiinyanga ezintathu. Inzala yesiFrentshi kwiwayini zaseBordeaux ayizange iqale kude kube yiminyaka emininzi emva kweenyawo zeBrits.

Ngexesha le-18 leminyaka uMarquis Nicolas Alexandre de Segur waphucula ubuchule bokwenza iwayini kwaye wandisa udumo lweewayini ezintle kwiimarike zangaphandle kwaye ngakumbi kwiNkundla yaseVersailles. Eyaziwa ngokuba yi "Nkosana yeWayini," uLafite waba yi-The Kings Wine ngenkxaso yommeli okwaziyo, uMarechal de Richelieu. Xa uRichelieu wonyulwa njengeRhuluneli yaseGuyenne, wadibana nogqirha waseBordeaux owamcebisa ukuba uChateau Lafite “wayengoyena mntu ubalaseleyo nonomnandi kunabo bonke.” Xa uRicheliu ebuyela eParis, uLouis XV wathi kuye, “Marechal, ukhangeleka umncinci kuneminyaka engamashumi amabini anesihlanu xa ubuyokuya eGuyenne.” URicheliu wathi ufumene uMthombo woLutsha kunye newayini kaChateau Lafite ethi, "imnandi, inesisa, inobuhlobo, ifana ne-ambrosia yoothixo baseOlimpus."

I-Lafite yayisaziwa kakhulu eVersailles kwaye yamkelwa nguKumkani. Wonke umntu ngoku wayefuna iwayini yeLafite kwaye uMadame de Pompadour wayizisa ngesidlo sakhe sangokuhlwa kwaye uMadame du Barry wakhonza iwayini kaKing kuphela.

Iwayini ezixabisekileyo zeBordeaux ze-French aristocracy (Domaines Barons de Rothschild / Lafite) ziyafumaneka kuthi ngophawu lweLegende.

1.            Igosa leMedoc 2018. Iipesenti ezingama-50 zeMerlot, iipesenti ezingama-40 zeCabernet Sauvignon, iipesenti ezili-10 zePetit Verdot. Inxalenye yobudala oki iinyanga ezisi-8 inika amanqaku e-vanilla kunye nelizwi eliphantsi lokutshaya.       

Iliso livuyiswe ngumbala obomvu obomvu ngelixa impumlo ivuyiswa ngevumba lesibindi sesinongo esimnandi, iziqhamo ezibomvu, umxube oswiti, okrakra, onetyiwa nomuncu (cinga licorice), uphuculwe ngamanqaku e-mocha kunye ne-toast evela ekugugeni komgqomo . Incasa iyahlala enkalakaleni inika amava agile kwaye anencasa ekuhambiseni ubumnandi ekugqibeleni. Bambisa nenyama yenkomo, imvana, inyamakazi, okanye inkukhu.

2.            Umlinganiswa R Pauillac 2017. Iipesenti ezingama-70 zeCabernet Sauvignon, iipesenti ezingama-30 zeMerlot. Amashumi amathandathu eepesenti ubudala kwi-oki yaseFrance iinyanga ezili-12.

Umbono wokuqala wale wayini imdaka ngombala kunye namacebo amnyama ucebisa ukuba uyakuba nobunkunkqele kwaye ubukrelekrele. Impumlo ifumana isipha esineziqholo, ijamberry, ivanilla kunye neqhwitha zixubana kunye. Ukuzithemba kwinkalakahla, ihambisa umkhondo weziqhamo ezimnyama, ikhokhonathi kunye ne-vanilla eneetannins ezigutyungelweyo. Le yiwayini enomzimba opheleleyo kwaye yenza ingxelo enesibindi. Bhangqa nenyama yenyama yenkomo, isityu, itshizi ezivuthiweyo ezinje ngeComte kunye neSaint Netaire.

3.            Igosa likaSaint-Emilion 2016. Iipesenti ezingama-95 zeMerlot, iipesenti ezi-5 zeCabernet Franc (evela kwisithili saseLibourne). Amashumi amane eepesenti ubudala kwimiphanda ye-oki yesiFrentshi.

Ukujongwa kokuqala kwale wayini kuzisa umbala omenyezelayo omnyama obomvu. Impumlo iyavuya xa ifumana ilicorice, iplums, iitsheri, iinkuni kunye necuba. Inkalakahla ivuzwa ngezindululo ze-mocha, iherbs, ii-cloves, i-perfume, iinkuni ezindala kunye nesakhiwo se-tannin esityebileyo. Bhangqa nedada okanye i-game terrine kunye ne-quince jelly, igxalaba lemvana eligcadiweyo nge-rosemary okanye i-thyme, i-pizza kunye ne-pasta napolitana okanye i-lasagna.

4.            Igosa leR Bordeaux Rouge 2018. Iipesenti ezingama-60 zeCabernet Sauvignon, iipesenti ezingama-40 zeMerlot.

Iinyanga ezi-9 ezindala kwiimvaba zekhonkrithi kunye neepesenti ezingama-60 zomxube wokugqibela oneminyaka ubudala kwimigqomo.

I-Crimson iliso ngesiqhamo esibomvu kunye namaqunube amnyama, ilicorice kunye nespice esimnandi okulukuhla impumlo, ngakumbi ukuthanda njengevumba le-mocha kunye ne-toast ukusuka kumgqomo wokuguga komgqomo ukuya kumava. Entsha kunye nesiqhamo enkalakahleni, ukugqitywa kwayo kuneziqhamo ezimnandi. Bhangqa nerisotto kunye nesosi yenyama, ipasta iBolognese, ham kunye nesalami. 

5.            Umlinganiso R Bordeaux Blanc 2020. Iipesenti ezingama-70 zeSauvignon Blanc, iipesenti ezingama-30 zikaSemillon.

Iliso livuyiswe ngumbala otyheli wegolide kunye namazwana omququ. Impumlo inomvuzo ngeziphakamiso zeziqhamo zetropiki kunye namacebo obuncinci. Inkalakahla iyakhohliswa ziincasa ezingqukuva nezigcweleyo ezikhokelela kwisiphelo esinohlaza esitsha. Bhangqa nokutya kwaselwandle, iimbatyisi eziluhlaza, nantoni na enesosi yeBearnaise kunye nesaladi eluhlaza (ukunxiba okungengu-viniga).

© UGqirha Elinor Garely. Inqaku lelungelo lokushicilela, kubandakanya iifoto, alinakuphinda liveliswe ngaphandle kwemvume ebhaliweyo evela kumbhali.

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