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Ukunyuka kwamaXabiso eKhabhoni yangaphakathi

Ibhalwe ngu umhleli

Njengokuba iinkxalabo zotshintsho lwemozulu zikhula, iinkampani zijongana nemilinganiselo engqongqo karhulumente ebahlawulisa ngokugqitha kwekhabhoni. Ezi zohlwayo zihlala zivela ngohlobo lweendleko zemali kwaye zaziwa njenge rhafu yekhabhoni.

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  1. Ezinye iinkampani ziyayichasa irhafu yekhabhoni.
  2. Abanye bayazi ukuba kutheni irhafu iyenziwa kwaye bazama ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa.
  3. Enye indlela eqhelekileyo yile ihlala ibizwa ngokuba ngamaxabiso ekhabhoni yangaphakathi.

Ukubeka nje, amaxabiso ekhabhoni ahambelana neenkampani ezibeka ixabiso lemali kwimveliso yazo. Ngelixa eli xabiso lisisiqhelo, yazisa ngezigqibo ezininzi kwaye inceda iinkampani ukuba zingathathi cala kwikhabhoni.

Ayothusi into yokuba iinkampani ezininzi zamkela umxholo werhafu yekhabhoni. NgokweProjekthi yokuDiza iCarbon (CDP), ngaphezulu kweenkampani ezingama-2,000, ezimele ngaphezulu kwe-US $ 27 trillion kwimali yentengiso, zichaze ukuba ngoku zisebenzisa ixabiso lekhabhoni yangaphakathi okanye ziceba ukwenza enye kule minyaka mibini izayo.

Okwangoku, amaxabiso ekhabhoni angaphakathi aqhelekile kumashishini, kwimathiriyeli nakwinkonzo yezezimali.

imvelaphi

Ukuqala ngaphandle 

Amaxabiso angaphakathi ekhabhoni enza ukuba iinkampani zibeke ixabiso lentengiso ekudluliseleni ikhabhon eninzi, nokuba imbinana yemisebenzi yabo ixhomekeke kwimigaqo-nkqubo yamaxabiso angaphandle kunye nemigaqo ehambelana nayo. 

Iinkampani zisebenzisa amaxabiso angaphakathi ngezi ndlela zilandelayo:

  • Ukuphembelela izigqibo malunga nenkcitho eyinkunzi, ngakumbi xa iiprojekthi zichaphazela ngokuthe ngqo ukukhutshwa, ikakhulu xa iiprojekthi zichaphazela ngokuthe ngqo ukukhutshwa, ulondolozo lwamandla, okanye utshintsho kwisigqibo semithombo yamandla. 
  • Ukuvavanya, ukumila, kunye nokulawula umngcipheko wezezimali kunye nolawulo weenkqubo ezikhoyo kunye ezinokubakho zamaxabiso kurhulumente. 
  • Ukunceda ukufumana umngcipheko kunye nokuvuleka kunye nokulungisa isicwangciso ngokufanelekileyo.

Amaxabiso akhethwe ngaphakathi abonisa irhafu ekhoyo yekhabhoni okanye umrhumo onyanzelwe kulawulo lweminye imibutho. Ezinye iifemu zisenokungabi nayo imisebenzi kulawulo lwemigaqo-nkqubo ecacisa amaxabiso ecarbon. 

Amaxabiso akhethwe ziinkampani kwihlabathi liphela ahluka kakhulu, ezinye iinkampani zibeka amaxabiso ekhabhoni asezantsi ngetoni nganye. Ngokwahlukileyo, abanye bayayivavanya ngaphezulu kwe-100 yeedola ngetoni nganye. 

Ixabiso lekhabhoni elikhethiweyo lixhomekeke kushishino, ilizwe, kunye neethagethi zenkampani. Ngaphambi kokuba sichaze iindlela ezahlukeneyo apho iifemu zisebenzisa amaxabiso ekhabhoni angaphakathi, kubalulekile ukuqonda indlela abagqiba ngayo ngexabiso lekhabhoni.

Ukulinganisa iinyawo zecarbon

Ekuhambeni, iinkampani kufuneka zibe nokuqonda okucacileyo kwazo ukukhutshwa

Nangona amazwe kunye namazwe ahlukeneyo eyamkele imimiselo eyahlukeneyo yokusingqongileyo kunye namaxabiso ekhabhoni, iinkampani zichonga umthamo kunye nendawo ezikuyo zokukhutshwa kwazo ngokuthe ngqo nangokungathanga ngqo kwe-CO2. I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yase-US (EPA) ijongana neengxelo zokukhutshwa ngokuthe ngqo kumashishini ezamandla kunye nabenzi eUnited States. 

Ukukhutshwa ngokuthe ngqo okanye ubungakanani bokukhutshwa okukodwa kuvela kwimithombo ephethwe okanye elawulwa yinkampani- umzekelo, ukukhutshwa ekutshiseni kwibhoyila kabini okanye kwizithuthi zayo. Indlela ojonga ngayo ukukhutshwa iya kuxhomekeka kumthombo. Umzekelo, ngokutshaya, ungasebenzisa iinkqubo zokubeka esweni okuqhubekayo (CEMS) ukulandelela ukuphuma kwekhabhoni. Abahlalutyi beCEMS unokulandelela iigesi ezinje ngeNOx, SO2, CO, O2, THC, NH3, kunye nokuninzi.

Ubume obungathanga ngqo kwimveliso emibini ekhutshwa ngumbane ofunyenwe yinkampani, ubushushu, umphunga kunye nokupholisa. 

Okunye ukukhutshwa okungangqalanga (umda wesi-3) kwenzeka kwinkampani yokubonelela, njengokuvelisa kunye nokuhambisa izinto ezithengiweyo kunye nokulahlwa kwenkunkuma. Umahluko phakathi kokukhutshwa ngokuthe ngqo nangokungathanga ngqo kubonakalisa ukuba neenkampani ezingekho kwimizi-mveliso eyomeleleyo yecarbon zinokuphendula ngokukhupha okukhulu.

Ikhabhoni yangaphakathi ihlala ithatha enye yezi ndlela zintathu:

Umrhumo wangaphakathi wekhabhoni

Umrhumo wangaphakathi wekhabhoni lixabiso lentengiso letoni nganye yokukhutshwa kwekhabhoni ekuvunyelwene ngawo ngawo onke amasebe entlangano. Iindleko zidala umjelo werhafu ozibopheleleyo wokuxhasa amanyathelo ngamanyathelo athathiweyo ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa. 

Uluhlu lwamaxabiso eenkampani ezisebenzisa umrhumo wangaphakathi wekhabhoni ukusuka kwi- $ 5- $ 20 ngetoni nganye. Ukubeka ixabiso kufuna ukuqwalasela izinto ezahlukeneyo kwishishini lonke ngokuhambelana nerhafu ebekiweyo kunye nezinto ezisisiseko zendlela yokufumana imali. 

Kukho iimpawu ezahlukeneyo zolu hlobo lwamaxabiso ekhabhoni, njengokuyila inkqubo yesibonelelo kunye norhwebo olukhuphela iindlela zangaphandle ezinje ngeNkqubo yokuRhweba ngeMveliso ye-EU. Imali eqokelelwe ngale ndlela ikakhulu iphinda ityalwe kuzinzo nakwiiprojekthi zokunciphisa ikhabhon. 

Ixabiso lesithunzi

Ixabiso leShadow lixabiso lexabiso okanye elicingelwayo ngetoni nganye yokukhutshwa kwekhabhoni. Ngendlela yeendleko zesithunzi, iindleko zekhabhoni ziyalinganiswa kwimisebenzi yorhwebo. Oko kunokubandakanya uphononongo lwamatyala orhwebo, iinkqubo zokufumana, okanye uphuhliso lomgaqo-nkqubo weshishini ukubonisa indleko zekhabhoni. Iindleko ezilandelwayo zidluliselwa kubaphathi okanye kubachaphazelekayo.

Ngokwesiqhelo, ixabiso lisetelwe kwinqanaba elibonisa iindleko zexesha elizayo zekhabhoni. Ixabiso lesithunzi lendlela yekhabhoni linceda ishishini liqonde umngcipheko wekhabhoni kwaye emva koko liziququzelele ngaphambi kokuba ixabiso lesithunzi libe lelona xabiso. Kungabakho lula ukwenza ixabiso lesithunzi ngaphakathi kwishishini njengoko kungekho tshintsho kwii-invoyisi zesebe okanye kwizivumelwano zezemali.

Ixabiso elichaziweyo

Ixabiso elichaziweyo lisekwe kwinkampani echitha imali ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi okanye iindleko zokulandela imigaqo karhulumente. Umzekelo, kunokuba sisixa esichithwa yinkampani Imithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo

Ixabiso elichaziweyo linceda amashishini ukuba afumane kwaye anciphise ezi ndleko kwaye asebenzise ulwazi olufunyenweyo ukuze abambe umkhondo wekhabhoni. Ixabiso lekhabhoni elichaziweyo linokuseta umqobo ngaphambi kokungenisa ngokusesikweni inkqubo yangaphakathi yexabiso lekhabhoni kwezinye iinkampani.

Izibonelelo zokubeka ixabiso langaphakathi lekhabhoni

Ukuseta ixabiso lekhabhoni yangaphakathi kunokunika izibonelelo ezibalulekileyo. Ziquka:

  • Ukwenza iingxoxo zekhabhoni kwindawo ekugxilwe kuyo kushishino. 
  • Ikhusela inkampani ngokuchasene nexabiso lekarbon elizayo
  • Inceda inkampani ukuba ichonge kwaye iqonde umngcipheko wekhabhoni kunye nekhabhoni kwishishini
  • Ukungaphumeleli kwisicwangciso-qhinga seshishini sexa elizayo 
  • Yenza imithombo yemithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo
  • Yenza ulwazi ngaphakathi nangaphandle
  • Inika isisombululo kubathengi nakubatyalomali malunga neenkxalabo zabo malunga imo iyatshintsha 
  • Iyanciphisa ukukhutshwa kwekhabhoni

Amaxabiso angaphakathi ekhabhoni anokusebenza njengesixhobo sokunciphisa umngcipheko esisebenzayo kunye nezibonelelo ezininzi ngaphandle kwemisebenzi yenkampani, abathengi kunye nokusingqongileyo. Xa zidityaniswe nezinye iindlela, iinkampani ziya kunceda ukukhuthaza kakhulu utshintsho lwekhabhoni esezantsi.

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Umhleli oyintloko nguLinda Hohnholz.

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