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Isithandi sobulumko saseJamani, uMartin Buber
Isithandi sobulumko saseJamani, uMartin Buber

Abemi baseMpuma Yurophu, ngakumbi iPoland neUkraine, babehlwempuzekile, bahlala bengafundanga, kwaye bengenazo isimilo kunye nobunkunkqele bokuphakama kwabantu baseNtshona Yurophu. Ngenxa yomahluko omkhulu, izifundiswa zaseNtshona Yurophu zihlala zibonisa ukungabahloneli abantu baseMpuma Yurophu abahlala kumazwe asuka ePoland aya kumathafa aseRussia naseUkraine aya kwiiBalkan.

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Isithandi sobulumko saseJamani, uMartin Buber
  1. Ixesha lokugqibela lokugqibela (ngasekupheleni kwe-19 nasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-20) yayilixesha legolide lamaphepha enzululwazi kunye nefilosofi yaseJamani.
  2. Eli xesha yayilixesha lentlupheko enkulu eMpuma Yurophu.
  3. Umahluko phakathi kwala macala mabini aseYurophu uzibonakalise ngeendlela ezininzi. INtshona Yurophu yayityebile, inenkcubeko kwaye iphucukile.

Yintoni eyayiyinyani kuluntu ngokubanzi lwaseYurophu, yayiyinyani nakwilizwe lamaJuda. Ukukhululwa kukaNapoleon kwamaJuda kwii-ghettos zaseFrance naseJamani kwakukhokelele kulwandiso lwamaJuda kuluntu lwaseNtshona Yurophu.

AmaJuda aseNtshona Yurophu athetha ulwimi lwesizwe sawo kwaye amkela iipateni zenkcubeko zaseYurophu. Uninzi lwalufundiswe kwezona yunivesithi zibalaseleyo eYurophu. Njengakwimeko yabantu belizwe labo, uninzi lwamaJuda aseNtshona Yurophu ayethanda ukuwajongela phantsi amaYuda aseMpuma Yurophu. Inginginya yamaPolish, amaRashiya namaUkraine amaJuda ayehlwempuzekile kwaye engafundanga kulwimi lwasentshona nakwinkcubeko. Babehlala kwiilali ezibizwa ngokuba zii-shtetls (njengoko kuchaziwe ku- "Fiddler on the Roof"). AmaJuda aseNtshona Yurophu naseMelika abona abazalwana babo basempuma njengeempawu zayo yonke into abafuna ukubaleka.

Kukulo lizwekazi lahlulelanayo apho umJuda omkhulu Isithandi sobulumko saseJamani, uMartin Buber (1878-1965), wachitha ixesha lokuqala lobomi bakhe.

Ngexesha lokugqibela kwenkulungwane yama-20, uBuber wayengomnye wefilosofi ezinkulu zaseJamani. Wathandwa bubomi bamaJuda baseMpuma Yurophu kwaye wakhonza njengebhulorho edibanisa la mazwe mabini.

Ngaphambi kokunyuka kweJamani yamaNazi, uBuber wayenguprofesa kwiYunivesithi yaseFrankfort kunye nomlobi obalaseleyo kwisiJamani nesiHebhere. Umsebenzi wakhe wefilosofi "Ich und Du" (mna nawe) usafundwa kwihlabathi liphela.

Abagxeki abaninzi kunye neengcali zefilosofi babecinga ukuba uBuber wayeyindoda enkulu yefilosofi yekhulu lama-20 kunye neengcamango zentlalo. Umsebenzi wakhe wokufunda ube nefuthe elikhulu kumacandelo ahlukeneyo, kubandakanya i-anthropology yezonyango, isayikholoji yefilosofi, kunye ithiyori yokufundisa. Wayengumguquleli weBhayibhile. Inguqulelo kaBuber noRosenzweig yeZibhalo zesiHebhere ziincwadi zakudala zaseJamani.

UBuber wayenomdla kwihlabathi leMpuma Yurophu yamaYuda. Nangona oogxa bakhe bejonge ezantsi kwi-shtetl, uBuber wafumanisa ukuba, phantsi kwale miba mibi yoluntu, kukho umhlaba wentlalo onzulu nophilileyo, umhlaba owawunzima kakhulu kwaye unentlalo. Umsebenzi wakhe odumileyo woncwadi "Chassidic Tales" alunikanga kuphela isidima kuluntu olucekisekayo, kodwa lwabonisa ukuba ingcinga enzulu yefilosofi yayingelilo iphondo kuphela lezifundo zasentshona.

UBuber wazisa ebomini kungekuphela nje kwicala elihlangeneyo lobomi be-shtetl kodwa kunye nolwalamano lwalo noThixo.

UBuber "usimema" kubomi be-shtetl. Ubonisa ukuba ezi lali, nangona zihlwempuzekile kwizinto zehlabathi, zazityebile kumasiko nakumoya.

Ukufunda imisebenzi kaBuber sifunda ukuba abantu abanyanzelekileyo ukuba baphile phakathi kwendlala kunye nocalulo babenakho ukuguqula ithemba libe zizenzo kunye nentiyo eluthandweni.

Sinokufunda iBaber's "Chasidic Tales" kumanqanaba amabini. Kwinqanaba lokuqala, sifunda iintsomi malunga nabantu abazama ukuphumelela kwihlabathi elinobutshaba, ilizwe apho ukusinda nje kwakusondele kummangaliso. Kwinqanaba elinzulu ngakumbi, sifumana ifilosofi ephucukileyo efundisa umfundi ukonwaba ngobomi phakathi kwethemba.

Kuwo wonke umsebenzi kaBuber, sibona indlela abahlali be-shtetl ababa ngayo ngamaqabane kaThixo. Ngokungafaniyo “nabaphuculiweyo” baseYurophu baseYurophu, aba bantu “bangenabuchule” zange bazame ukumchaza uThixo. Bahlala nje ubudlelwane obuqhubekayo noThixo. Abantu be-shtetl basebenzise amagama kancinci. Naxa bethetha noThixo, iimvakalelo bezihlala zivakaliswa ngomculo we "neegoon": ingoma ngaphandle kwamagama, ukuculwa kwabo kubasondeze kuThixo.

UMartin Buber wawaqokelela la mabali, wawasongela ngeepakethe ezintsonkothileyo ezifundweni, kwaye wawenzela imbeko yentlonipho kwihlabathi liphela laseNtshona.

Iincwadi zakhe: "Hundert chassidische Geschichten" (Ikhulu lamabali eChassidic) kunye ne "Die Erzählungen der Chassidim" (Amabali eHasidic) abonise ubunzulu bomoya phakathi kwendlala kwaye anikezela kwihlabathi ulwazi olutsha ngobulumko.

Uphumelele ukuvala ukholo oludlamkileyo lwamaJuda aseMpuma Yurophu ngobomi obomileyo bezemfundo eNtshona, esishiya umbuzo wokuba ngaba eli qela belingcono?

UBuber ubonise indlela izifundiswa zasentshona ezahlula ngayo inyani, ngelixa kwihlabathi le-shtetl bekukho ukufuna impilo. UBuber ukwabonakalise ifilosofi yaseNtshona kwingcinga ye-tzimtzum: umbono wokuncipha kukaThixo kwaye ke uvumela ukungcwaliswa kwesiqhelo. Ukufunda iBuber, sibona indlela abahlali be-shtetls abamfumene ngayo uThixo kuyo yonke indawo kuba uThixo wenza indawo apho abantu banokukhula khona.

UBuber akayeki ngokuchaza ubudlelwane phakathi koluntu noThixo (bein adam la-makom) kodwa ungena kwihlabathi lobudlelwane babantu (bein adam l'chaero).

Ku-Buber kukuphela konxibelelwano phakathi kwabantu olwenza ingubo yothando kunye nokuzikhusela kwingqele yenzondo kunye nokucalulwa. Kwilizwe likaBuber, akukho hlulo phakathi kwezopolitiko kunye nokomoya, phakathi komsebenzi kunye nomthandazo, phakathi komsebenzi wasekhaya kunye nobungangamsha. Inyaniso ayifumaneki kokungaziwayo, kwimfihlakalo kodwa ngokucacileyo, kunxibelelwano phakathi komntu nobomi. UBuber ubonakalisa indlela obu budlelwane obutshintsha ngayo ilizwe elingenantliziyo kwaye ngeendlela zesiko zenza ubomi bube nenjongo yokuphila.

Kumfanekiso kaBuber we-shtetl, akukho mntu ulunge ngokupheleleyo okanye ungalunganga. Kunoko, kukho ukukhangela i-teshuvah, ukujika nokubuyela kuThixo kunye nobuntu bomntu.

UBuber usinika, njengoSholom Aleichem endandibhale ngaye kwinyanga ephelileyo, abantu abaqhelekileyo abafumana uThixo kwiindlela eziqhelekileyo zobomi. Abantu bakaBuber abafikeleli ngaphaya komntu, kodwa baphila ubomi babo ngendlela yokuba ngabantu badibana noThixo. UBuber ungumzekelo wale nyathelo ngomntu we-tzadik (inkokheli yokomoya kunye noluntu). I-tzadik ihlonipha usuku ngalunye, yayenza ngcwele, ngommangaliso wokungcwalisa iindlela ezothusayo nezingathandekiyo zobomi.

Imibhalo kaBuber ichaza ilizwe elingasekhoyo.

Ukutshatyalaliswa yintiyo yamaNazi aseYurophu kunye nolwandle lwayo lokukhetha, asishiywanga nto ngaphandle kwamabali, kodwa ezi ziintsomi ezenza ubomi bube nenjongo yokuphila, kwaye kungenxa yesithandi sobulumko saseJamani esabaleka eJamani saphinda samisa ubomi bakhe. kwa-Israyeli, ukuze nathi sizingcwalise eziqhelekileyo sifumane uThixo kuyo yonke into esiyenzayo.

UPeter Tarlow is rabbi emeritus eTexas A & M Hillel Foundation kwisikhululo seKholeji. Ungumfundisi weSebe lePolisa leSikhululo seKholeji kwaye ufundisa kwiKholeji yase-Texas A&M yezoNyango.

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Malunga nombhali

UGqirha Peter E. Tarlow

Ugqirha Peter E. Tarlow sisithethi esidume kwihlabathi liphela kunye nengcali egxile kwimpembelelo yolwaphulo-mthetho nobunqolobi kwicandelo lezokhenketho, imicimbi kunye nolawulo lomngcipheko wokhenketho, kunye nokhenketho nophuhliso lwezoqoqosho. Ukusukela ngo-1990, uTarlow ebencedisa uluntu kwezokhenketho ngemiba enjengokhuselo lokuhamba nokhuselo, uphuhliso lwezoqoqosho, intengiso yoyilo kunye nengcinga yoyilo.

Njengombhali owaziwayo kwicandelo lokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, uTarlow ngumbhali onegalelo kwiincwadi ezininzi kwezokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, kwaye upapasha amanqaku amaninzi emfundo kunye nokusetyenziswa kophando ngokubhekisele kwimicimbi yezokhuseleko kubandakanya amanqaku apapashwe kwiThe futurist, Ijenali yoPhando loKhenketho kunye Ulawulo loKhuseleko. Uluhlu olubanzi lweTarlow yamanqaku obuchwephesha kunye nabaphengululi kubandakanya amanqaku ngezihloko ezinje: UTarlow ukwabhala kwaye apapashe incwadana yeendaba yezokhenketho ekwi-intanethi efundwa ngamawakawaka ezokhenketho kunye nabakhweli bezohambo kwihlabathi liphela ngolwimi lwesiNgesi, iSpanish, kunye nesiPhuthukezi.

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