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Ukulwa ukurhweba ngabantu ngexesha lobhubhane

ukuthwalwa kwabantu
ukuthwalwa kwabantu

Ukhuseleko lwezokhenketho belusoloko lukhusela iindwendwe kubo, nakwabanye abakhenkethi, nakubantu abafuna ukubaphanga okanye bababambe, benze ubuqhetseba kubo, okanye ngenye indlela bathethe kakubi okanye babethe undwendwe.

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  1. Kukho abantu abahamba ngenjongo enye yokuzibandakanya kwizenzo ezingekho mthethweni zesondo.
  2. Uhlobo oludala lokuthinjwa kwabantu luyinxalenye yeshishini lokhenketho elichaphazela abantu abadala kwaye lixhaphaze abantwana.
  3. Abarhwebi basebenzisa ithuba labucala kunye nokungaziwa ukuba bafikeleleke kumzi-mveliso wokubuka iindwendwe ngeenjongo zokuxhaphaza ngokwesondo.

Abasebenzi bezokhuseleko kwezokhenketho kufuneka ukongeza ekunikezeleni ngokhuseleko bajongane nesoyikiso sobunqolobi esijolise kwiindawo zokuhamba, iminyhadala, kunye nendawo yokutya kunye neendawo zokulala zeshishini lokhenketho. Kwilizwe lobhubhane, ukhuseleko lokhenketho lukwangokugcina abo basebenzisa eli shishini kwaye basebenze kulo besempilweni. Oku kuthetha isidingo sokunxibelelana neengcali zempilo yoluntu kunye neenzame zokudala uhambo olusempilweni kunye namava abatyeleli kunye nokufumana iindlela zokuvumela abo basebenza kumzi-mveliso wokhenketho ukuba bahlale besempilweni.

Ngelishwa, kukho elinye icala elimnyama lokhenketho, apho iindwendwe kunye nabantu basekuhlaleni bathatha inxaxheba, oko kukuthi Icandelo lokurhweba ngabantu. Ayisiyo yonke into yokurhweba ngabantu ejongene nezokhenketho. Ezinye zazo zijolise ekuhenyuzeni kwalapha ekhaya, ekuthengiseni iziyobisi ngokungekho mthethweni nasekukhotyokisweni kwamadoda nabafazi. Ngelishwa, le ndlela intsha yokuthinjwa kwabantu ikwayinxalenye yeshishini lokhenketho. Ayisiyiyo kuphela le ndlela intsha yokurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni echaphazela abantu abadala ngelishwa ikwaxhaphaza abantwana.

Ngaphandle kwento abantu abaninzi abafuna ukuyikholelwa, kukho abantu abahamba ngenjongo yokuzibandakanya kwizenzo zesondo ezingekho mthethweni. Kukho iinxalenye zeshishini lokhenketho kunye nezohambo ezisebenzisa aba bantu bathengiswayo njengohlobo lwabasebenzi abancinci. Zininzi izizathu zokugula, ukusukela kwinkolelo yokuba abantu kwilizwe elingaphuhlanga kangako baxabiseka kancinci kunoluvo lokuba irhamncwa lomntwana likholelwa ukuba umntwana kungenzeka ukuba abe yinyulu, kwinkolelo yokuba aba bantu abanako ukukhusela Ngokwabo kwaye inokusetyenziselwa naliphi na inani oko umenzi wobubi akholelwa ukuba kukuzanelisa.  

Nokuba siphi isizathu esinikwe ukuthethelela ulwaphulo-mthetho, ukuthwalwa kwabantu ukuxhaphaza akukho semthethweni kwaye kuyonakalisa umntwana, umntu omdala kunye noluntu luphela. UkuXhatshazwa kwabaNtwana kwezoRhwebo (CSEC) lolwaphulo-mthetho oluphambili lwamalungelo oluntu. Njengokuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo bekukho kuyo yonke imbali, kodwa kuphela kumashumi eminyaka akutshanje apho isixa solwaphulo-mthetho siye saziswa oorhulumente noluntu.

Umzi mveliso wokubuk 'iindwendwe awunakubaleka le ngxaki. Abarhwebi basebenzisa ithuba labucala kunye nokungaziwa ukuba bafikeleleke kumzi-mveliso wokubuka iindwendwe ngeenjongo zokuxhaphaza ngokwesondo. Abangekho kumaxwebhu banokoyika "ukubanjwa" kwaye ke bazivumele ukuba basebenzise phantse njengamakhoboka kunokuba babuyele kwilizwe labo. Ayisiyiyo kuphela indawo yokungenisa ishishini njengeziko lokuxhaphaza abantu ngokwesondo kwaye ihlala inyanzeliswa kodwa ezi ngxaki zinokwenzeka kwimidlalo, kwiipaki zemixholo nakwiinqanawa zokuhamba ngenqanawa. Uninzi lwabasebenzi abanakho ukuziqonda iimpawu zokurhweba ngabantu okanye bazi ukuba abantu abasebenza nabo banokuba ngamaxhoba.

Nangona abanye bephikisile ukuba uloyiko lwe-COVID-19 okanye inani lezithintelo zokuhamba zikazwelonke ezikhoyo ngoku zinokuthi zehlise inani lamaxhoba ngexesha lobhubhane, abanye bathi ubuhlwempu obonyukayo obubangelwa ngulo bhubhane bonyuse ukuxhaphaza kwabantu. Ngokwenyani, ezi ziingcinga nje nangona ukuvulwa komda osemazantsi e-US kunokubangela ukwanda kokurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho kuMntla Merika.

Zininzi izizathu ezinokubangela ukuba uchaze ukuba kutheni ukurhweba ngesondo kukhona kunye nokudibana kwayo nokhenketho. Ezi zenzo zesondo ngokungekho mthethweni zinokubangelwa kukungaziwa ngenxa yokuba kude nekhaya labo, okanye yimfuno yengqondo yokulawula enye indoda okanye umfazi. Ukukhula okukhawulezayo kunye nehlabathi kweendleko zomoya ezihamba ngexabiso eliphantsi kuye kwenza ukuba iindlela zokuhamba ngenqwelomoya zifikeleleke ngokuthe chatha kwaye iindawo ezintsha nezindawo ezihlumayo, xa zivulekile, zifikeleleka kwinani eliphezulu labakhenkethi, kubandakanya nabanokuba ngabaphuli mthetho bolwaphulo mthetho ngokwesondo lwabantwana. Ngapha koko, ingxaki yezoqoqosho eqhubeka ngenxa yokuvalwa kukarhulumente idale iqela elitsha labantu abacinezelekileyo abanokuba ngamaxhoba.

Ukhenketho lwezesondo kwaye ngakumbi oko kuxhaphaza amahlwempu kunye nabangenakuzikhusela ngumhlaza wentlalo othe wenyuka kwelona shishini lokuhamba nokhenketho. Ngelishwa, akukho mntu waziyo ukuba bangaphi abantu kwihlabathi jikelele abangamaxhoba oxhatshazo olunje. I-International Labour Organisation (ILO) iqikelela ukuba amanani amaxhoba anokuba kwizigidi. Ukurhweba ngabantu njengeshishini elingekho mthethweni kucingelwa ukuba liza kuvelisa iibhiliyoni zeedola zaseMelika kwaye kukholelwa ukuba phantse i-60% yabo bonke ukurhweba ngabantu ngokuxhaphaza ngokwesondo, ngaphezulu kwama-20% amaxhoba ingabantwana. Inani elichanekileyo labasebenzi abangahlawulwanga kunye / okanye abangahlawulwanga (abakhonzi abangamakhoboka) kwihlabathi liphela alaziwa kodwa amanani abonakala emangalisa.

Ukuze uqalise ukujongana nale ngxaki, iiTidbits zoKhenketho zibonelela ngezi ngcebiso zilandelayo.

-Ungafihli ingxaki; zibhence. Uluntu lwezokhenketho, ngakumbi kule mihla yobhubhane, kufuneka lubhengeze ukuba banomgaqo wokunganyamezeli kwaphela. Lo mgaqo-nkqubo uthetha ukuba amagosa ezokhenketho kufuneka avelise ulwazi elumkisa abatyeleli ukuba ukuxhaphaza abantu abadala nabantwana akusayi kunyanyezelwa. Olu lwazi kufuneka lube kwizikhululo zeenqwelo moya, kumagumbi eehotele, nakumaziko olwazi ngezokhenketho. Luxanduva lomntu wonke osebenza kwezokhenketho ukuba asebenzise amandla akhe okuthengisa ukuzama ukunciphisa le ngxaki.

-Yazi ukuba ingxaki inokuba ikhona kwindawo ohlala kuyo. Enye yeengxaki ezinkulu kwesi sigulo sifihlakeleyo kukuba uninzi loluntu lwezokhenketho alwazi okanye lukhethe ukungayiboni ingxaki. Ukungahoyi ingxaki yobu bukhulu ayenzi ukuba ingxaki inyamalale kunoko inyusa ubungakanani bengxaki.

-Uphuhliso lweqela elisebenzayo kunye nokusebenza nokunyanzeliswa komthetho wengingqi ukuhlalutya nokuphuhlisa iindlela. Ngexesha le-COVID-19 nqumama eli lixesha lokuphuhlisa iindlela ezintsha zokumisa ukurhweba ngabantu ngokwesondo. Akukho sisombululo sinye singena konke. Buza ukuba ngaba le ndlela yokuxhaphaza ikhona kwindawo ohlala kuyo ngenxa yokunqongophala kweenkonzo zokhuselo okanye imithetho? Ngaba ubuhlwempu ngoyena nobangela? Ngaba amagosa anyanzelisa ukuthotyelwa komthetho akayinakanga le ngxaki ukuba ayithathele ingqalelo?

-Yazi ukuba iindawo eziphuhlileyo zehlabathi zihlala zingamaziko orhweba ngabantu. Amagosa ezokhenketho kwiindawo ezifana ne-Yurophu, i-United States, i-Japan kunye ne-Israel kufuneka zenziwe zazi ukuba iindawo zawo zehlabathi zihlala zikwizinga lokurhweba ngabantu.

-Uphuhliso lweziphumo kwabo bathatha inxaxheba ekuthatheni inxaxheba ebantwaneni. Kukho abantu abaninzi ababandakanyekayo ekuxhatshazweni ngabantu, phakathi kwaba: umthengi, umntu "oqeshisa" umntwana, umfazi, okanye indoda, umboneleli, ofana nomqweqwedisi okanye umzali "othengisa" umntwana kunye phakathi, njengabanini beehotele abavumela abanye abantu ukuba baxhatshazwe kwindawo yabo. Bobathathu bafuna ukutshutshiswa ngokuzeleyo komthetho. Oko kuthetha ukuba iihotele kufuneka zaziswe ukuba xa bengaboni ngamehlo ekuxhatshazweni ngokwesondo okanye kwezabasebenzi baya kuthi bahlawuliswe ngokuqatha, bafumane ixesha lokuvalelwa, okanye ihotele inoxanduva lokuvalwa.

Yikhumbule into yokuba abantwana banokusetyenziswa kwiifomathi ezininzi. Ayisiyo kuphela ukuba ukhenketho lwezesondo luxhaphaza abantwana ukwaneliseka kwangoko ngokwesondo, kodwa abantwana banokusetyenziselwa imveliso yeefilimu ezingamanyala eziphelisa iividiyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba imithetho emitsha inokufuneka ukukhusela abantwana okanye imithetho esele ikho inokufuneka inyanzeliswe ngakumbi.

Sebenza noluntu lwasekuhlaleni. Umlo ochasene nokuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo yindlela uluntu lwezokhenketho olunokubonisa ngayo uluntu ukuba luyakhathala. Sebenza nemibutho yasekuhlaleni, kunye nemibutho yezenkolo kunye nalo naliphi na elinye iqela elixhalabileyo ngale ngxaki. Ngokubonisa ukuba amagosa ezokhenketho akayikhathalelanga le ngxaki kuphela, kodwa azimisele nokulungiselela ukuyisombulula, ishishini lokhenketho lwasekhaya lihambe umgama omde ukuze liphumelele iintliziyo neengqondo zabemi balapha kunye nabakhenkethi ngokufanayo.

Sebenzisa amagama anyanzela abantu ukuba baqonde ukuba into eyenziweyo ayilunganga. Hlala kude nesinyeliso. Ezokhenketho zisebenzisa izihlonipho ezininzi. Xa kuziwa ekuxhatshazweni ngokwesondo kunye nabasebenzi kunamandla igama libangcono. Umzekelo, kunokuba uthi "iphonografi yabantwana" yibize ngokuba "izinto zokubukela ukuxhatshazwa kwabantwana." Yenza amagama abe namandla ngangokunokwenzeka njengendlela yokuhlazisa abantu.

-Ungoyiki ukwazisa amagama abantu abathengisayo okanye abathenga abanye abantu. Yazisa umhlaba ukuba aba bantu bayathengisa okanye bathenga amadoda, abasetyhini nabantwana okanye bavumela ukusetyenziswa kwezenzo ezingekho mthethweni kunye nokuziphatha okubi kwindawo yabo. Inqaku elibalulekileyo kukuba ukhenketho kufuneka lube yeyona nto iphambili kwaye lubonise umhlaba ukuba ishishini lokhenketho liyakhathala.

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Malunga nombhali

UGqirha Peter E. Tarlow

Ugqirha Peter E. Tarlow sisithethi esidume kwihlabathi liphela kunye nengcali egxile kwimpembelelo yolwaphulo-mthetho nobunqolobi kwicandelo lezokhenketho, imicimbi kunye nolawulo lomngcipheko wokhenketho, kunye nokhenketho nophuhliso lwezoqoqosho. Ukusukela ngo-1990, uTarlow ebencedisa uluntu kwezokhenketho ngemiba enjengokhuselo lokuhamba nokhuselo, uphuhliso lwezoqoqosho, intengiso yoyilo kunye nengcinga yoyilo.

Njengombhali owaziwayo kwicandelo lokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, uTarlow ngumbhali onegalelo kwiincwadi ezininzi kwezokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, kwaye upapasha amanqaku amaninzi emfundo kunye nokusetyenziswa kophando ngokubhekisele kwimicimbi yezokhuseleko kubandakanya amanqaku apapashwe kwiThe futurist, Ijenali yoPhando loKhenketho kunye Ulawulo loKhuseleko. Uluhlu olubanzi lweTarlow yamanqaku obuchwephesha kunye nabaphengululi kubandakanya amanqaku ngezihloko ezinje: UTarlow ukwabhala kwaye apapashe incwadana yeendaba yezokhenketho ekwi-intanethi efundwa ngamawakawaka ezokhenketho kunye nabakhweli bezohambo kwihlabathi liphela ngolwimi lwesiNgesi, iSpanish, kunye nesiPhuthukezi.

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