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Ngaba ishishini elinamasiko ngamasiko anjengezokhenketho linokubandakanya?

Amashishini oKhenketho: Ukujongana namajelo eendaba
UGqr Peter Tarlow

Kumdlalo kaWilliam Shakespeare u-Romeo noJuliet abadlala indawo yomdlalo weqonga emlonyeni womlinganiswa ophambili, uJuliet, umbuzo ovakalisayo okanye ongathandabuzekiyo: “Ngubani igama? Oko sikubiza ngokuba yirosa ngalo naliphi na elinye igama bekuya kunuka kamnandi. ” Inqaku likaShakespeare kukuba igama libaluleke kancinci kunesenzo esichaziweyo; into ekuthiwa yintoni ayibalulekanga kunaleyo yenzayo. Nangona uShakespeare unokuchaneka xa kufikwa kwiintyatyambo okanye uthando,

Akude kuqinisekiswe ukuba kuyafana nangomgaqo-nkqubo wezentlalo apho amagama abaluleke ngaphezu kwento esinokuyikholelwa kwaye edla ngokubangela zombini izenzo zobukhulu kunye nentlekele-amaxesha ovuyo nosizi. Amagama ke anamandla kwaye indlela esiwatolika ngayo ibalulekile.

Njengabanye ababhali bokukhupha umxholo, ndijolise ekuphenduleni umbuzo: Ngaba ukhenketho lunezinto zokusebenza kunye neempendulo kuluntu olubandakanya ngakumbi? Ngokwenyani, ayingombuzo omnye kodwa ingumbuzo wezopolitiko, wefilosofi, wezopolitiko kunye nemicimbi yezentlalo enencasa yeembali zembali kwaye zichazwe kwisivakalisi esifutshane. Umbuzo ukwabhalwe ngocoselelo: Awubuzi ukuba ukhenketho lunazo na izixhobo kunye neempendulo kuluntu olubandakanyayo, kodwa kunoko (kuluntu) olubandakanya ngakumbi? Ngamanye amagama ngumbuzo ongeyiyo imilinganiselo kodwa wedigri. Ngaba besithetha nge-gastronomy kunokhenketho sinokuwuthelekisa lo mbuzo kwinto eqhelekileyo yesiqhelo seCaribbean, into equlathe isuntswana layo yonke into kunye nencasa yayo engalawulwa nto.

Umbuzo obuziweyo uthatha ukuba umphenduli uyawuqonda umxholo wokhenketho, kwaye ngendlela efanayo ukuba unolwazi oluthile kwishishini. Ngendlela efanayo, umbuzo uphakamisa imiba malunga nokhenketho kunye ne-ecology kunye nokuba ukubandakanyeka kunxibelelana njani nokwanda kwabemi ekufuneka babelane ngezixhobo ezinokubakho. Yintoni eyenza ukuba kubenzima ukusombulula lo mbuzo kukuba ukhenketho ayisiyonto yohlobo olunye. Lushishino oludityanisiweyo olunamacandelo amaninzi anjengeehotele, iivenkile zokutyela kunye nezothutho.

Ukwahlulahlula la macandelo kusekho. Kule meko ukhenketho lufana neMilky Way; yinto engekhoyo ebonakalayo ebonakalayo iphelele kodwa ngokwenyani kukudityaniswa kweenkqubo ezininzi, nganye ineenkqubo ezongezelelweyo ngaphakathi kwinkqubo ephantsi kwaye zidityanisiwe, olu lukhenketho.

Inkqubo yethu yokhenketho ikwafana nezinye iinkqubo zentlalo kunye nezebhayoloji- kanye njengakwinkqubo yebhayoloji impilo iyonke ihlala ixhomekeke kwimpilo yecandelwana ngalinye.

Kwezokhenketho, xa nawuphina umntu esecaleni eyeka ukusebenza, yonke inkqubo inoxanduva lokophuka. Ukongeza, njengoko kunjalo kwiifom zobomi eziguqukayo, imisebenzi yezokhenketho yabelana ngezinto eziqhelekileyo kodwa zahlukile kwindawo nganye. Umzekelo, ukhenketho eMzantsi

IPacific yabelana ngokufana okuthile namashishini abantakwabo kwilizwe liphela, kodwa ikwahluke kakhulu kwimeko yezokhenketho yaseYurophu okanye eMntla Melika.

Koku kulandelayo, ndiza kuqala ndiqwalasele intsingiselo yoluntu oluquka konke ndize ndizame ukufumanisa ukuba ukhenketho lunalo na uqoqosho, ulawulo, ezopolitiko nezentlalo ukuthanda ukunceda ukudala imibutho ebandakanya bonke abantu.

Umcimbi wefilosofi wokubandakanya

Ngokunikwa umxholo wemibuzo ebhalwe ngamagama, kuyacaca ukuba lowo ubuzayo ubona ukubandakanywa njengophawu oluhle lwentlalo kwaye ubeke ugxininiso kumba wokhenketho onezixhobo eziyimfuneko (ezemali nezolwazi) ukwandisa ukubandakanywa kwelona nani likhulu labantu elinokubakho. Yiyo loo nto umbuzo ulayishwe ngaphambili, Oko kukuthi, siyayazi into oyifunayo

Iziphumo kodwa kufuneka ufumane indlela yokufumana iziphumo. Umfundi kufuneka aziqonde izizathu zokucinga komntu obuzayo: Yindalo yomntu ukungafuni ukukhutshwa.

UKristian Weir ebhala kwijenali yeAmerican Psychological Association usebenzisa igama elithi “ukwaliwa” ngengqondo “yokukhutshelwa ngaphandle” kwaye uthi:

Njengokuba abaphandi bemba nzulu kwiingcambu zokwaliwa, bafumene ubungqina obothusayo bokuba intlungu yokukhutshelwa ngaphandle ayifani kangako nentlungu yokwenzakala emzimbeni.

Ukwala nako kuye

 iimpembelelo ezinzulu kwimeko yengqondo yomntu kunye noluntu
nje

Inkcazo yesichazi-magama ikwaxhasa ixabiso elifanelekileyo lokubandakanya. Inkqubo ye-
IMerriam- iWebster Dictionary yolwimi lwaseMelika ibonelela ngenye yeefayile ze-
iinkcazo zegama eliquka konke (ukubandakanywa) ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: “kubandakanya wonke umntu ingakumbi: ukuvumela nokulungiselela abantu ababekade bengabandakanywa (ngenxa yohlanga, isini, isini, okanye ubuchule

Ngexabiso lobuso, umnqweno wokunyusa ukubandakanywa yinjongo yebhongo, nangona kunjalo
bambalwa abanokuthi umntu angabandakanywa ekuthengeni itikiti lenqwelo moya, ukubhalisa ehotele, okanye ukutya kwindawo yokutyela ngenxa yesini sakhe, ubuhlanga, inkolo, ubuzwe, ukuthanda isini okanye enye into yebhayoloji.
iimpawu. Imithetho yesizwe sele ijongile kwaye yenze uninzi ngokungekho mthethweni, ukuba ayingabo bonke, iindlela zocalucalulo ngokusekwe kwiimpawu ezinjengeenkolelo zomntu, ubuzwe, ubuhlanga okanye inkolo. Umbuzo wocalucalulo kwiindawo ezininzi zehlabathi zomthetho ozinzileyo. Ukujonga oku, ngaba ukubandakanywa kufanele kugxilwe ekwamkelweni koluntu okanye kumanyano lwentlalo?

Oku kubangela imibuzo emibini yokuphuma:
Q1. Ngaba injongo yokubandakanya iyenzeka okanye ngumnqweno nje?
Umbuzo Ngaba umbono wokubandakanywa unokuba yindlela apho amaqela aphambili alawula amaqela angenamandla abantu?

Ngokumalunga neyokuqala kule mibuzo mibini, umba wokuba namandla okwenza amandla ngu
embindini. Njengoko u-Immanuel Wallerstein weYunivesithi yaseYale esithi:

Ukungalingani kuyinyani esisiseko kwinkqubo yanamhlanje njengoko injalo
Kuzo zonke iinkqubo zembali ezaziwayo. Umbuzo omkhulu wezopolitiko we
Ihlabathi lanamhlanje, owona mbuzo mkhulu ngokwenkcubeko, ibikukuze uxolelanise njani
ukwamkela ithiyori kokulingana ngokuqhubekekayo kwaye kusiba nzima
Ukwahlulahlula amathuba obomi bokwenyani kunye nolwaneliseko olube sisiphumo salo.

Imibuzo eyenziwa nguWallerstein ilele embindini wombuzo
ukubandakanywa kukhenketho.

Umbuzo wesibini kunzima ukuwuphendula kwaye usinyanzela ukuba siqwalasele
kungenzeka ukuba iqela lingala ukubandakanywa okanye likholelwe ekubandakanyeni
uye wanyanzelwa kubo. Ngaba ikhona into enje ngokunyanzelwa kokubandakanywa? Ukuba
ucalucalulo alukho mthethweni ngoko kutheni kufuneka ukhenketho lujongane nemicimbi ye
ukubandakanywa koluntu? Ngokuyinxenye, impendulo ixhomekeke kwindlela esibujonga ngayo ubandakanyo nakwindlela esilijonga ngayo ukhenketho. Ngaba ukhenketho lushishino olunye oluthetha ngazwi linye okanye ngaba umzi-mveliso unamazwi amaninzi? Ngaba ukhenketho luyifilosofi okanye lishishini kwaye ukuba lishishini ngaba sithetha kuphela ngeenjongo zokufumana inzuzo okanye sithetha ngoxanduva lwentlalo?

Ukuba ukhenketho luza kudlula ngaphaya komthetho ngokubhekisele kubo bonke abathengi kunye nabasebenzi abaphethwe ngesidima sithetha ngako
iinjongo ezinamabhongo mhlawumbi ezingafikelelekiyo. Ezokhenketho ubukhulu becala,
sele ishishini elingenalucalucalulo, kunye nenkonzo elungileyo yabathengi ifuna ukuba abasebenzi bayo babaphathe bonke abantu njengabathengi ababekekileyo.

Njengoko nawuphi na umhambi esazi, ukhenketho luxhomekeke ebantwini kwaye abasoloko bephila ngokwemigangatho ebekiweyo. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba ukusilela kuyenzeka kukho
Akuthandabuzeki ukuba abasebenzi baqeqeshiwe ukubonelela ngenkonzo elungileyo nengakhethi cala. Nangona oko kungasoloko kusenzeka, umbhalo weMishnaic wenkulungwane yokuqala uPirke Avot uthi, “Akunyanzelekanga ukuba ugqibezele umsebenzi, kodwa kananjalo awukhululekanga ukuyeka kuwo Ngamanye amagama, kufuneka sibe nenjongo nokuba ingowokugqibela injongo ayinakuze ifumaneke.

Ngaphandle kwezi njongo zomnqweno, njengelungu leqela elincinci iqela
"Ukubandakanya" kuyandikhathaza. Ngaba eli gama licinga ukuba bambalwa
kulindeleke ukuba baziphathe ngokungqinelana nemigangatho yesininzi ngaphandle kwento yokuba isenokungafuni ukubandakanywa? Ngaba igama elithi "wonke umntu" likwabonisa umlinganiselo wokuzithoba? Ngaba igama lixelela ababuthathaka ukuba kufuneka bakuxabise ukubandakanywa kwabo? Ngaba igama lokubandakanywa liyafana nelinye igama elinamandla okusetyenziswa ngokubhekisele kubuthathaka: unyamezelo?

Ngaba yomibini le misebenzi ibonisa uninzi lwenkcubeko yokuqonda okunyanzelekileyo, indlela
ukuba inkcubeko uninzi luzive kamnandi ngeli xesha linye
ukulawula inkcubeko ebuthathaka?

Ngapha koko, amaxesha ento esinokuyibiza ngokuba: “unyamezelo olubandakanya wonke umntu” awanalo
ihlala iphela kakuhle, ngakumbi kwabo "babandakanywayo" okanye "banyamezelwayo".
Imbali izele yimizekelo yamaxesha ekuthiwa "ayanyamezeleka", amaxesha amaninzi
zenzeke ngexesha lokukhula koqoqosho, xa ubuninzi bezingca ngokwamanqanaba abo okubandakanya kunye nokunyamezelana. Ngelishwa, umbono wokunyamezelana kunye nokuwohloka ekubeni yi-bigotry kunye nokubandakanya kunokujika kube kukodwa.
Ukusuka kolu luvo, sinokubuza ukuba igama "ukufakwa" ayisiyiyo enye indlela yokufumana ubukhosi? Umzekelo, i-French Revolution yayilutshintsho lokubandakanya, ukuba nje iqela lakho kunye neengcinga zakho zamkelekile kuhlaziyo. Inguquko yaphela kungekuphela kolawulo loyikiso kodwa nangombuso waseFrance ubandakanya abantu aboyisiweyo kwinkcubeko yaseFrance, nokuba bafuna ukubandakanywa okanye hayi. Mhlawumbi inguquko yomzabalazo yayiyi-Sanhedrin ebizwa ngokuba yi-Paris Sanhedrin eyasekwa ngu-Napoleon ngo-1807. Kule ngqungquthela, uNapoleon wanika oorabhi ithuba lokukhetha "ukunyanzelwa" ukuba bafakwe kuluntu lwase-France okanye ubomi phakathi kobumdaka kunye nevumba elibi lase-Paris ghettos. Ukuba siqhubela phambili kwimbali ethile ye-100 yeminyaka, sibona umdlalo wokugqibela ngaphandle kwenguquko yaseFrance kwiMarxist Russia. Kwakhona, ukufakwa kwakuthetha ukungeniswa "kubasebenzi ababandayo" okanye ukubhengezwa njengotshaba lwenguquko kwaye isiphumo sokhetho lokugqibela yayikukufa.

Ezi patheni zembali ziye zaqhubeka ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Sisenokuba nayo
kulindeleke ukuba i-post-Nazi yaseYurophu ifune ukuphelisa uluntu lwayo
Iidemon zelenqe,

Ubuzwe kunye nobuhlanga. Nangona kunjalo kungaphantsi kwenkulungwane emva kokoyiswa kwamaNazi
EJamani, iYurophu isasokola. AmaJuda aseFrance ahlala exela ukuba anokholo oluncinci lokuba amapolisa aseFrance aza kubakhusela. Bahlala behlala benoloyiko kwaye uninzi luye lwafudukela eFrance emva kokuba ekugqibeleni luyekile ukuya eYurophu. Imeko e-United Kingdom ngokuqinisekileyo ayikho ngcono. Ngaphandle kokwehla kwe "Corbynism" iivoti zase-Bhritane, ezathathwa ngexesha lobunzima be-Covid-19 zibonisa ukuba umntu omnye kwabahlanu base-Bhritane ukholelwa ukuba ukuqhambuka kwesibetho se-Covid-19 ngamaJuda okanye ngamaSilamsi. Into ebangela umdla ngolu phononongo kukuba ibonisa uninzi lweengcinga ezifanayo ezazivezwe ngabantu baseYurophu ngenkulungwane ye-14 ngeXesha lesiBetho esiMnyama. Xa abatyali babuza ukuba balusekelephi olu lucalucalulo kwimpendulo eqhelekileyo bathi "andazi." Izimo zengqondo ezichazwe kula mazwe mabini anamhlanje kwaye "ayanyamezelana" amazwe aseYurophu anokuxhasa ingcinga yokuba xa uqoqosho luthintela ukucalulwa kudla ngokwanda. Ukuba kunjalo, ixesha loqoqosho lwasemva kwesisongelo linokubonisa ukwanda kobuhlanga kunye nenkolo. Ngokunikwa irekhodi lembali yokubandakanywa kufuneka sibuze ukuba ingaba abantu baseYurophu (kunye nabantu abaninzi baseMntla Melika) bathetha ntoni "ngokubandakanya" ngokwenene "kukufana" okanye ukulahleka kwesazisi ngokwenkcubeko. Ngaba eli gama yindlela nje echubekileyo yokuthetha: unikezele inkcubeko yakho? Ukuba le yeyona ntsingiselo iyinyani yeligama ke
Impendulo yabaninzi ekufuneka bebandakanyiwe ingangaba enkosi.

Ukunyaniseka ayizizo zonke izinto ezingalunganga. Umzekelo, zombini iPortugal neSpain ziye
usebenze nzima ukulungisa ukungabikho kokusesikweni okwenzeka ngexesha le
Ukuncinwa. Omabini la mazwe asebenzise icandelo labo lezokhenketho ukucacisa
iintlekele zexesha elidlulileyo kunye nokuzama ukudala imeko yokuphiliswa kwembali. Inkqubo ye-
Kukwanjalo ke nangeJamani emva koNazi. Ngaphandle kwezi ndawo ziqaqambileyo njenge
Ngokwesiqhelo, inkcubeko yaseYurophu naseMntla Melika ibonakalise ukunyamezelana
enye, kodwa kunqabile ukuba ibuze "enye" ​​ukuba ifuna ukunyamezelwa. Kuninzi ukuze
ukumangaliswa kwabo bakhuthaza ukubandakanywa, ayinguye wonke umntu ofuna ukubandakanywa- kuhlala kuchasene. Ngokombono we "kubandakanyiwe" okanye "ukunyamezelwa kwesi simo sengqondo sokukhathalela akusoloko kuvelisa iziphumo ezilindelweyo: ngamanye amaxesha abantu abambalwa bayasijonga esi sithuba sentlalontle njengothobekileyo. Ikwayindlela efanayo yokuzithoba ukuba izizwe ezininzi kwihlabathi liphela ziye zaziva xa zinikwa ithuba lokuba zintshona.
Njengokuba kunjalo ngegama "iinkcubeko ezininzi" kukho amaqela amancinci athe alijonga eli gama njengentsingiselo: "Ndikunika ithuba lokuba ufane nam!" Oko kukuthi, inkcubeko yesininzi inika inkcubeko encinci ithuba lokuzibandakanya kwinkcubeko yesininzi kunokuba ivunyelwe isidima "sobukho" nje.

Ukusuka kwimbono yokhenketho, lo mahluko ubalulekile ubuncinci
izizathu ezibini:

(1) Ukhenketho luyachuma kulodwa. Ukuba sonke siyafana akukho nto iyinyani
Isizathu sokuhamba. Kukangaphi iindwendwe zikhalaza ukuba inkcubeko yendawo ibikhona
ihlanjululwe ukuya kwinqanaba lokuba ngumboniso nje onxitywa ngabemi ukwanelisa
inkcubeko yokutya kwintshona? Iindwendwe ziza kwaye zihambe kodwa yinzalelwane
abantu bashiyekile ukuba bajongane neengxaki zentlalo kunye nezonyango ezishiya iindwendwe ngasemva.

(2) Ukhenketho, ngakumbi ukuhambela elizweni, alugcini nje ngokugcwalisa imarike, kodwa luyazalisa
ikwahlala isoyikisa ukusebenza kweenkcubeko zemveli. Kule meko,
impumelelo izala imbewu yempumelelo 'yentshabalalo. Njengokuba umhlaba ubandakanya wonke umntu, ngaba nawo uyafana?

Ezokhenketho kunye nokubandakanywa

Ezokhenketho ngundoqo, ukubhiyozela "enye". NjengeZizwe eziManyeneyo
Umbutho wezoKhenketho kwiHlabathi liphela (UNWTO) uqaphele:

Bonke abantu kunye neendawo zonke banenkcubeko eyahlukileyo. Amava
Iindlela ezahlukeneyo zobomi, ukufumanisa ukutya okutsha kunye namasiko kunye nokutyelela iindawo zenkcubeko zibe zizinto ezikhuthazayo ebantwini ukuba bahambe. Ngenxa yoko, ukhenketho kunye nemisebenzi yokuhamba namhlanje ingumthombo obalulekileyo wengeniso kunye nokudala imisebenzi.

Oku kuvuleka nokwamkelwa komnye kungaba sisizathu sokuba abanqolobi
Abazelanga nje ukujolisa kushishino lokhenketho kuphela kodwa bazokuludelela.
Ubunqolobi bufuna ukudala ilizwe labantu abathandwa ngabemi bamanye amazwe apho umntu athathwa njengesiqhelo
Ichitheka ngokuzalwa kubuzwe, uhlanga, okanye inkolo engeyiyo kwaye yeyona ndlela iphambili yokukhetha omnye.

Ukufezekisa le njongo ubunqolobi kufuneka bushumayele ukuba abo bangafaniyo
"Thina" akufuneki sithenjwe.

Ukhenketho njengeshishini lokubandakanya kwiminyaka yobhubhane

Ukhenketho ngumsebenzi weshishini kwaye ngenxa yoko, aluchaphazeli malunga
uhlanga lomntu, inkolo, okanye imvelaphi yesizwe njengoko kugxilwe kumgca osezantsi
iziphumo. Ukuze lisinde, ishishini lokhenketho, njengalo naliphi na elinye ishishini, kufuneka lifumane imali
imali eninzi kunokuba ichitha. Kwimeko yomxholo wokukhupha umbuzo ukuba kunjalo
isebenzisa igama elithi "ukubandakanywa" kuthetha: ukwamkelwa kwakhe nawuphina umthengi ohlala ngaphakathi komthetho kwaye okulungeleyo ukuhlawula ixabiso, emva koko ukhenketho ngokwesiko luye lwafuna ukuba ngumzekelo weenjongo zokubandakanya. Ngelishwa uhlala ukhona umahluko phakathi ko "kufanele ukuba" kunye no "ngu". Ukubandakanywa kwishishini kufuneka kube kuyo yonke indawo. Ayizizo zonke izizwe, nangona kunjalo, ezamkela iipasipoti zomnye nomnye kwaye kwishishini lokhenketho kukho iimeko zocalucalulo ngokobuhlanga nangokwezopolitiko.

Ingxaki ye-Covid-19 icele umngeni kuluvo lokubandakanya ukubandakanywa. Kungekudala
emva kokuba ubhubhane uqalile, izizwe zaqala ukuvala imida kunye nembono yokuba
wonke umntu wamkelekile wayeka ukubakho. Kule meko, uninzi lujongwa
iiarhente zamanye amazwe ezinjenge-United

Izizwe azibalulekanga. Endaweni yokuba uhlanga ngalunye lwenze oko lubona lukulo
ilungele abemi bayo. Ngaba ukuhamba ngaphandle komthungo kunye nokubandakanya kwi
I-post-Covid-19 yehlabathi ibe ngumgaqo wexesha elidlulileyo? Kwilizwe elineemeko zezopolitiko ezingazinzanga, uqoqosho olunciphayo kunye nokunqongophala kwengqesho kwaye kuphinde kubekho ucalucalulo kwixesha elidlulileyo, ngaba ishishini lezokhenketho kuya kufuneka ukuba likhethe ngakumbi ukuba liqesha kwaye likhonza bani?

Izixhobo zoKhenketho

Le mibuzo yezoqoqosho, yezopolitiko kunye nefilosofi ikhokelela kwinxalenye yokugqibela
ngolu luvo: Ngaba ukhenketho lunazo izixhobo kunye neempendulo. . . Oku
uphakamisa umbuzo onzulu: "Yintoni ukhenketho?" Umzi mveliso wezokhenketho awubambeki kwaye awumiselwanga mgangatho, kwaye awukodwa.

Akukho shishini linye lokhenketho, kodwa endaweni yoko kukho ukudityaniswa kwezinto ezahlukeneyo
imisebenzi. Ngaba ishishini lokhenketho alikho enye into ngaphandle kwengcinga eyilelweyo
uyayichaza le mélange? Ukuba sijonga ukhenketho njengolwakhiwo lwasekuhlaleni, i
Ukuthintela okusebenza njengokufutshane kumashishini amaninzi aphantsi kwe-
ezona meko zisebenza kunye?

Le mibuzo ikhokelela kumbuzo ogqithileyo: Ukucinga ukuba ishishini lezokhenketho likwazile ukuhlangana njengeshishini elinye, ngaba linganezixhobo zokutshintsha okanye ezichaphazele imigaqo-nkqubo yehlabathi? Impendulo kufuneka ibe ngu-ewe no-hayi. Icandelo lezokhenketho, ngoku elilwela ukusinda kwalo, alinazo izixhobo zokunyanzela oorhulumente ukuba bamkele imigaqo-nkqubo yentlalo yefilosofi. Obu buthathaka buchazwa ngexesha lembali yowama-2020, njengoko imibutho emininzi yehlabathi ibonakala ngathi ibingakulungelanga ukujongana nayo
iingxaki zempilo noqoqosho ezithe zenzeka. Abanye abafundisi-ntsapho kunye noochwephesha bathi nangona kusilele, uqoqosho lwehlabathi kufuneka lubuyele kwelinye ixesha lobuchwephesha kunye nobuchwephesha bobuchwephesha kunye nokubandakanywa kwindalo iphela.

Abanye baphikisa isikhundla esithandwayo, beqaphela ukuba baninzi kakhulu
Oochwephesha bezemfundo kunye nabahlohli bayasuswa kwiingxaki zehlabathi lokwenyani. Unyulo oluninzi eYurophu nase

Icandelo leenkcubeko ezininzi

Amazwe aseMelika abhekisa kukukhathazeka ngabantu abaphezulu ngoku.
Bayayiqaphela into yokuba baninzi kakhulu abasebenzi abakhathazekileyo ngenxa yeempazamo ezenziwa ngamajelo eendaba, zizifundiswa, nangaba balawuli baphambili.
Ngaba zizidubedube zamva nje eziqubuke kwizixeko zase-US kuphela ngenxa yobuhlanga
Ukudakumba okanye ukongeza ukubonakaliswa komsindo ngenxa yeenyanga zokunyanzelwa kwemigaqo-nkqubo "yendawo yokuhlala"? Kwabaninzi, kukho umbono ocacileyo wokuba umhlaba ubuyile kwimeko yangaphambi kohlaziyo lwamaFrentshi

Uhlaziyo.

Kula maxesha oxinzelelo ingaba ukhenketho sisixhobo sokuqonda, kubuninzi kunye noxolo? Ukuba ezokhenketho zingazikhuthaza ezi njongo sinokubanakho ukudlula ngaphaya kwengcinga eziqhelekileyo zokubandakanya kwaye uhlanga loluntu lungafezekisa izinto ezinkulu. Umlingisi waseBritane kunye nesincoko uTonyRobinson wathi:

Ukutyhubela imbali yabantu, ezona nkokheli zethu zibalaseleyo zisebenzisa i
Amandla wamagama okuguqula iimvakalelo zethu, ukusifaka kwizizathu zabo, kunye nokufumana ikhosi yesiphelo. Amagama awanako  yenza kuphela iimvakalelo, zenza iintshukumo. Andf rom izenzo zethu zihamba iziphumo zobomi bethu.

Icandelo lezokhenketho liyawaqonda amandla wamagama kwaye kwezi kwezi
Amaxesha esiphithiphithi ukuba ikhetha amagama ayo ngononophelo kwaye impendulo yethu
Umbuzo uyakuba kukuba ukhenketho alunakho ukuba nezixhobo ezizizo zokutshintsha umhlaba, nalo lonke ulwazi olufunekayo, kodwa ukuba lunokunceda umntu ngamnye kuthi
Qonda ukuba sonke singabahambi kwiplanethi encinci ebekwe kubukhulu be
isithuba kwaye sixhomekeke kumagunya anamandla kunathi sonke kunye-ke oko kunokwanela.

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Malunga nombhali

UGqirha Peter E. Tarlow

Ugqirha Peter E. Tarlow sisithethi esidume kwihlabathi liphela kunye nengcali egxile kwimpembelelo yolwaphulo-mthetho nobunqolobi kwicandelo lezokhenketho, imicimbi kunye nolawulo lomngcipheko wokhenketho, kunye nokhenketho nophuhliso lwezoqoqosho. Ukusukela ngo-1990, uTarlow ebencedisa uluntu kwezokhenketho ngemiba enjengokhuselo lokuhamba nokhuselo, uphuhliso lwezoqoqosho, intengiso yoyilo kunye nengcinga yoyilo.

Njengombhali owaziwayo kwicandelo lokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, uTarlow ngumbhali onegalelo kwiincwadi ezininzi kwezokhuseleko lwezokhenketho, kwaye upapasha amanqaku amaninzi emfundo kunye nokusetyenziswa kophando ngokubhekisele kwimicimbi yezokhuseleko kubandakanya amanqaku apapashwe kwiThe futurist, Ijenali yoPhando loKhenketho kunye Ulawulo loKhuseleko. Uluhlu olubanzi lweTarlow yamanqaku obuchwephesha kunye nabaphengululi kubandakanya amanqaku ngezihloko ezinje: UTarlow ukwabhala kwaye apapashe incwadana yeendaba yezokhenketho ekwi-intanethi efundwa ngamawakawaka ezokhenketho kunye nabakhweli bezohambo kwihlabathi liphela ngolwimi lwesiNgesi, iSpanish, kunye nesiPhuthukezi.

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