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Isihloko esitshisayo se-IUCN: Ukufudumala kwehlabathi - "ukulibazisa isela lexesha"

iucngokufudumala komhlaba
iucngokufudumala komhlaba
Ibhalwe ngu umhleli

Njengokuba uEdward Young, imbongi eliNgesi yenkulungwane ye-17, wayekhe wathi, “Ukuzibekel 'amangomso izinto lisela lexesha.” Ayikaze inyaniseke ngakumbi kunangoku, xa indalo kunye nomgangatho weempembelelo ezivela ebantwini

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Njengokuba uEdward Young, imbongi eliNgesi yenkulungwane ye-17, wayekhe wathi, “Ukuzibekel 'amangomso izinto lisela lexesha.” Akuzange oko kube yinyani kunangoku, xa ubunjani kunye nobungakanani beempembelelo ezivela kwimisebenzi yoluntu elwandle ziqwalaselwa, kwaye iindleko eziyinyani zokungenzi nto ukuzilungisa zityhiliwe.

Ingxelo entsha ye-IUCN, enesihloko esithi Ukuchaza ukufudumala kolwandle: oonobangela, isikali, iziphumo kunye neziphumo, icacisa uphononongo lwamva nje nolubanzi ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwesi sihloko kwaye ibonisa ibali elinzima lotshintsho elwandle. Olu tshintsho luyaqhubeka, uhlala uzivalele kumashumi eminyaka ezayo, kwaye sele uqalile ukubuchaphazela ubomi babantu. Eli ayiselona bali linye lemiceli mngeni yokufudumeza ulwandle kwiingqaqa zekorale, kodwa uluhlu olukhula ngokukhawuleza lotshintsho olothusayo kwiintlobo ngeentlobo kumanqanaba endalo, nakumajografi ajikeleze umhlaba wonke. Lutshintsho olugcweleyo, oluqhutywa kukufudumala kolwandle kunye nolunye uxinzelelo esele lusebenza ngeendlela esisaqala ukuziqonda, apho kukho izikhewu ezibalulekileyo kulwazi lwaselwandle, kwiinkqubo nakwizakhono ezishiya umhlaba ungakulungelanga ukumelana nexesha elizayo.


Ukufudumala kolwandle kunokuba yinto enkulu efihliweyo kwisizukulwana sethu. Ngaphezulu kwama-93% obushushu aphuculweyo ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-1970 ngenxa yemisebenzi yoluntu efunxwe lulwandle, kwaye idatha ibonakalisa uzinzo nokukhawulezisa ukunyuka okunyukayo kufudumezo lolwandle. Isikali sokufudumala kolwandle esiboniswe kwingxelo siyothusa ngokwenene: ukuba ubushushu obufanayo obuye benyuka kwi-2 km ephezulu yolwandle phakathi ko-1955 no-2010 endaweni yoko beye kwi-10 km esemazantsi, uMhlaba ngewube kubonwe ukufudumala kwama-36 ° C.

Idityaniselwe i-IUCN ngoososayensi abangama-80 kumazwe ali-12, le ngxelo iphonononga iimpembelelo zokufudumala kolwandle kwindalo nakwizinto eziphilayo, nakwizibonelelo zemihla ngemihla ezivela elwandle- "iimpahla neenkonzo" zalo.



Utshintsho olukhulu olubangelwe kukufudumala kolwandle kunye nezinye izinto ezibonisa uxinzelelo ezichazwe kwingxelo zibandakanya iimpembelelo kuyo yonke indalo ukusuka kwi-polar ukuya kwimimandla yetropiki, ekuqikelelwe ukuba iya kunyuka ngakumbi, isuka kunxweme olufikelelekayo ukuya kulwandle olunzulu lolwandle; onke amaqela eentlobo ezinjengeplankton, jellyfish, intlanzi, ufudo kunye neentaka zaselwandle eziqhutywa zide zifike kwi-10 degrees latitude ukuya kwiipali zomhlaba ukuze zigcinwe zikwimeko efanelekileyo yokusingqongileyo; ukulahleka kweendawo zokuzalela zamaqela afana noofudo kunye neentaka zaselwandle, kunye nefuthe kwimpumelelo yokuzala kweentaka kunye nezilwanyana zaselwandle; kunye nokutshintsha kwamaxesha ngamaxesha ngeplankton, okukhokelela kukungangqinelani okunokubakho phakathi kweentlobo zeplankton ngeentlanzi kunye nezinye izilwanyana zaselwandle.

Ngoku siyazi ukuba utshintsho elwandle lwenzeka phakathi kwe-1.5 kunye nama-5 ngokukhawuleza kunaleyo esemhlabeni. Olo tshintsho alunakubuyiselwa umva, lunefuthe elikhulu kwindalo. Oku kuya kukhokelela phi, kumashumi eminyaka ezantsi emgceni, akucaci gca. Kuvavanyo apho, endaweni yokuba sibukele nje kwilebhu, siye sazibeka sazifaka ngaphakathi kwetyhubhu yovavanyo.

Ingxelo ikwachaza ukungoneli kolwazi lwangoku, amandla kunye namandla okufunda ngokwaneleyo ukufudumala kolwandle, kunye nokucebisa nokujongana nemiceli mngeni ehambelana nayo. Uluntu lwehlabathi luyazibophelela kwikamva lekhabhon ephezulu engaxhobanga kwaphela ukuyiqonda, kungasathethwa ke ngokujongana nayo. Iimpembelelo sele zigqithile kwinto eqondwa ngokupheleleyo kunye nomthamo woluntu lwehlabathi ukuba lusebenze.

Umhlaba, mhlawumbi uphazanyiswe yimicimbi yemihla ngemihla emhlabeni, ebengayikhathaleli impembelelo yemozulu ebinayo kwindawo enkulu emhlabeni - ulwandle. Ulwandle lusembindini wenkqubo yemozulu, kwaye ngoku kufuneka lubekwiingxoxo zemozulu. Ngokumiliselwa kwesiVumelwano saseParis phantsi kwe-UNFCCC, amaqela ngoku kufuneka aqwalasele iimpembelelo zolwandle koko kubizwa ngokuba “yimirhumo emiselwe kuzwelonke” (NDCs) echaza ezona nzame zingcono zikazwelonke kwikamva lekhabhoni ephantsi. Ngoku kubalulekile ukuba siqwalasele i-CO2 yomoya-oyena nobangela wezi kunye nezinye iingxaki ezininzi-kunye nokufezekisa ukuncipha okukhawulezayo nokubalulekileyo kwento esikhupha kuyo.

Ingxelo iphehlelelwa kwi-IUCN yeHlabathi yoLondolozo lweHlabathi, umzuzu ophambili wokugxininisa ekhaya ukungxamiseka ekufuneka kuncitshisiwe ukunciphisa okunje ngoku. Kuya kufuneka sibonise ukuba sitshixile kwindlela yokuzifudumeza ekhathazayo elwandle, ekuphela kolwandle esinalo, emhlabeni kuphela esaziyo, ogcwele ubomi. Ngoku lixesha lokuba ubulumko kwaye uthathe isenzo. Izizukulwana ezizayo ziya kuthi emva koko ngokungathandabuzekiyo zisibulele ngobulumko bezenzo zethu. Ekugqibeleni, kusenokwenzeka ukuba kungumbongo ukubuyela kumazwi kaEdward Young: “Yiba nobulumko namhlanje; 'bubudenge bokuzibekela amangomso. "

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